Browsing Energy Systems Laboratory by Issue Date
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Cohen, K. C. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Engineers and scientists in industry often work in highly specialized, formatted tasks which require a high degree of specific skills but not necessarily a wide range of scientific knowledge. A company often molds its engineers to fill specific organizational responsibilities, thereby contributing to the loss of broad-based knowledge of their fields. When organizational tasks change, individual engineers often find themselves obsolete. Current shortages of engineers make this obsolescence costly to the nation.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-78.pdf (1.214Mb)
Riter, S. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: The Texas Energy Extension Service (EES) is one of ten Department of Energy funded pilot programs designed to test methods for assisting small energy users to reduce energy costs. A major thrust of EES in Texas is directed toward providing assistance to Texas manufacturers. This takes the form of responding to requests for technical information and conducting plant visits to energy intensive small manufacturers. An evaluation of program effectiveness and assessment of participants' needs has recently been conducted. The evaluation/needs assessment suggests that specific conservation information when delivered by credible organizations is acted upon and leads to reductions in energy costs.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-77.pdf (903.0Kb)
Faulkner, C. R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper gives the history of the society, outlines the organization, its purpose and benefits to its members. The membership restrictions and details of the program structure used to keep the organization viable are discussed. The present membership, recent meeting topics, and examples of some benefits to society members are also presented. The Gulf Coast Energy Conservation Society was the outcome of informal meetings between Amoco, Union Carbide, and Monsanto back in 1973 and has grown to a formalized society of 29 industrial plants from Galveston, Brazoria, and Harris counties in Texas. The society meets six times per year to exchange ideas and learn about new equipment or technologies that will help them do a better job of saving energy. In addition to the 29 member industrial plants, associate memberships are held by the University of Houston, Texas University, Texas Industrial Commission, and Energy User News. These memberships serve a very useful purpose in keeping the membership informed on what is happening in the academic and governmental areas in regards to energy conservation.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-76.pdf (947.7Kb)
Turner, W. C.; Webb, R. E.; Phillips, J. M.; Viljoen, T. A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: The need for sound energy management is no longer worthy of debate. Action is necessary and much is being done by U.S. industry. Unfortunately, however, the majority of the work is being done by the few large energy intensive industries throughout the country. The average small to medium sized company has yet to undertake a dedicated program. The reasons are numerous, but often it is simply because of a lack of knowledge of techniques or the amount of savings possible. Recognizing this, the Oklahoma Department of Energy designed a program to acquaint Oklahoma industry with the potential savings available through energy management and some basic techniques. The program is entitled "Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program" and is housed at Oklahoma State University. The program is funded by the U. S. Department of Energy through the State Energy Conservation Plan. This paper describes the program offerings, impact to date and plans for the future. The program offerings basically include: 1. A series of tuition free Industrial Energy Management Conferences (over 20 given to date involving many Oklahoma industries). 2. A free energy newsletter entitled "Energy Channel" mailed to all participating Oklahoma industries. 3. A series of Energy Audit booklets including instructions and forms. 4. Technical aid on a limited basis. 5. A series of laboratory type experiments involving power factor, solar energy, boiler combustion improvement and other energy related projects. 6. Fact sheet publication as the need develops. Plans for the future include expansion of the program to small businesses in general through the Energy Extension Service and more technical aid to participating industries, The basic plan involving the services above shall remain intact. The program has been very successful to date. The results are directly transferable to other states and the program directors are willing to share information.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-75.pdf (1.460Mb)
Gordon, D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Many computerized files of energy- and energy conservation-related information are currently available through commercial and governmental sources such as Lockheed Information Systems, System Development Corporation, and DOE/RECON. Private, governmental, and university libraries and information centers often have access to these files and can perform searches on them at a nominal cost to the user. The benefits of online searching versus manual searching are discussed, and the types of information available in these files are outlined. Adequate preparation by both the requesting party and the actual searcher is a must; the different aspects of good preparation are outlined. Finally, obtaining items cited in a computerized I literature search is a continuing problem, and sources for obtaining these materials are described
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-74.pdf (969.5Kb)
Heare, J.; dePlante, L. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: The objectives of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program are to assist Texas industry in using energy more efficiently through seminars, workshops, technical information exchange and other supportive programs with the goal of conserving at least 283.81 trillion BTU's of industrial energy in 1980. As the primary consumer of Texas' energy (54% of total, industry is a major focal point of the state's energy conservation effort. Although industry's overall record of energy conservation is good, such a large consumer must receive serious attention in any plan aimed at improving the overall efficiency of energy use in the state. The Texas Industrial Commission has been designated lead agency of the industrial conservation effort, and as such, created the Energy Utilization Department in the Fall of 1977. The multi-faceted department has established programs to accomplish its mission including: The Energy Search Center, an information access point for Texas manufacturers; a series of technical workshops and seminars; an annual Industrial Energy Technology Conference; the coordination of a university program for the training of industrial energy auditors; and organizational assistance in the establishment of regional energy conservation groups. Although manufacturers are encouraged to utilize the programs, they are designed primarily for small or medium-sized industries and low-technology operations where the employment of an energy specialist is economically impractical.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-73.pdf (939.7Kb)
Sheneman, R. L. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: The potential for energy conservation in high temperature industrial processes is very large. Industrial processes are known to consume over 30 percent of the Nation's energy. In turn something less than one third of this estimated twenty quads of energy is actually required to produce the product. This broad sweeping statement covers many sins and many virtues. The blast furnace, for example, is the largest user of energy per net ton of steel produced and operates at approximately 67% of theoretical efficiency. The slot forge furnace, used to reheat steel fat hot forging, operates at approximately 10% of theoretical efficiency. Actually steel forging stock can also be reheated at about 50% efficiency and this has been done by a DOE sponsored contractor. The technology is, in fact, being commercialized by the contractor and its rapid diffusion by DOE will be actively encouraged.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-72.pdf (1.232Mb)
Hegemann, K. R.; Niess, T.; Baare, R. D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: The Bischoff Blast Furnace Top Gas Process for high pressure blast furnaces is presented as an example of a modern gas treatment process in the iron and steel industry: the work potential of the high pressure top gas is utilized in a plant comprising a gas cleaning unit for dust removal and a turbine for converting the recoverable thermal energy into mechanical and electrical energy. The adjustable annular gap scrubber for separating fine dust also serves as an element for regulating the gas pressure at the blast furnace top so that pressure control by the turbine and its control gear is no longer necessary. Moreover, in the event of a turbine outage the annular gap scrubber can be used as a low noise, pressure-throttling element. The economic use of a turbine for recovering energy from top gas depends on many parameters, such as top pressure, top gas rate, clean gas temperature, local cost of electric power, etc. A profitability analysis for a specific installation shows a remarkably short payback period. The process incorporates a new concept in blast air compression. Mechanical energy from the turbine is transferred directly to the axial flow compressor so that the prior conversion of energy via the power generating cycle is dispensed with. Coupled to the turbine is the compressor motor which, while rated to cover the full power requirement, uses about 40% less electrical power from the power supply system. Finally, as an example of the future potential of this process, a new continuous steelmaking process is presented which employs a closed top converter. The gas, held under pressure during refining, is subsequently cleaned and expanded as the blast furnace process described above. This gas is cleaned without any entrainment of air to furnish a gaseous fuel of high calorific value. Since the steelmaking process is continuous, the gas is constantly available and can be fed into the distribution system without any intermediate storage.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-70.pdf (1.956Mb)
Marnell, C. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: This presentation covers the development of a new concept in radiation type recuperators. This new concept will increase the efficiency of standard conventional radiant recuperators and will provide increased energy savings of 5 to 15% over that available from a conventional radiant recuperator.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-69.pdf (1.186Mb)
Moore, J. A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Business publications devoted to the presentation of current events and achievements in the Energy Management marketplace headline many success stories, citing savings achieved by the applications of various Energy Management practices. The list of practices proven by experience to save energy and money runs the gamut from good housekeeping, through instrumentation and control, heat recovery and load shedding to computerized supervision. The most spectacular examples of savings are usually associated with installations where a computer is in charge. It would be surprising if this were not so. Certainly computer directed control exemplifies Energy Management. Decision making on the basis of up-to-date information about all contributing variables has to be the most effective way to produce results.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-67.pdf (1.188Mb)
Canty, W. R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: The petrochemical industry has long recognized that electrical and mechanical energy can be generated as a by-product of its process steam requirements. Years ago, some petrochemical plants generated all of their own electrical power. However, over the last twenty years the proportion of industrial electric power generation has declined. This change was primarily a result of favorable utility rates, a shortage of equity capital for investment in industrial power generating facilities, and an uncertain regulatory environment.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-05.pdf (1.685Mb)
Hughes, M. L. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: The domestic steel industry, being energy-use intensive, requires between 4 and 5 percent of total annual domestic energy consumption. More than two-thirds of total steel industry energy, however, is derived from coal. During the post-World War II era specific energy consumption exhibited a steady decline of slightly less than 1 percent per year. Potential for future savings is estimated at approximately 25 percent. Full realization of potential savings will require huge sums of capital. These needs will be in competition with other capital needs for modernizing existing facilities, for expansion, and for the large investments required to meet environmental regulations.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-65.pdf (1.738Mb)
Sheldon, A. C. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Energy is a vital resource in the production of aluminum. It is economically essential that producers use it efficiently. The aluminum industry developed historically in an economy of energy surplus or abundance. It has responded to energy constraints with stringent, voluntary energy conservation programs that are enabling producers to reduce their consumption significantly. Conservation plus the results of on-going, energy-related R&D work and innovative technology are helping Alcoa reduce energy requirements. This talk reviews the aluminum industry's and Alcoa's conservation activities of the past five post-embargo years. It highlights smelting improvements, still in the research and development stage, which nonetheless promise significant energy savings in the future, and other research activities as well. The importance of recycling and new recycling technology are included.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-63.pdf (1.084Mb)
Samurin, N. A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Fluidic cat crackers using the catalyst regeneration cycle have significant power recovery potential. Typically, the regenerator takes the spent coked catalyst and burns off the coke in an air pressurized atmosphere. The hot pressurized flue gas, leaving the regenerator section, contains the potential for power conversion from the heat energy and pressure head. Many existing systems recover the heat energy by means of carbon monoxide or waste heat boilers, but fail to utilize the pressure energy which can be recovered by the use of high temperature, dirty gas expanders. The use of an expander in the regenerator system introduces additional complexity. Analysis of the system operation during "off-design" conditions must be determined in order to properly design and size all turbo machinery and process components. A computer simulation model has been developed which allows the equipment vendor to size the air string components and assist the process designer in the evaluation of the many possible operating conditions. The digital computer model simulates the performance of the axial compressor, power recovery expander, regenerator section, and system pressure drops. The program can simulate the process system design conditions for compatibility with the axial compressor and the power recovery expander. It can predict off-design operation, such as the variation of ambient air inlet temperature and its effect on the compressor-expander power balance. It can test the startup procedures so that component design limitations are not exceeded. This paper will cover some of the basic modeling concepts for the axial compressor, regeneration and hot gas expander.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-34.pdf (1.556Mb)
Viar, W. L. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Hydrocarbon reforming involves a variety of chemical reactions at high temperatures and pressures in the presence of suitable catalysts. The conversion of naptha to high octane aromatics requires high energy to initiate and sustain the reaction at temperatures of 850-950oF. Hydrogen - rich off - gases are fired in combinations of process furnaces. Heat is transferred to hydrocarbon fluids by radiation, principally. Feed or return stream temperatures determine the need for convection sections. It is essential that the operation and maintenance of these furnaces be optimized to minimize production costs. This paper describes the performance testing and evaluation of a set of ten refinery furnaces used to thermally drive several reforming reactors and to regenerate catalysts. Firing rates provide an input of 216.2 x 106 Btu/hr. to the furnaces, at $1.90 per 106 Btu. The units are fitted with multiple natural draft burners. There is insufficient turbulence and swirl in the burners. Operators manually set up the burners with excessive airflows for normal, full-load firing. These furnaces represent production limits. Products of combustion exhaust at high thermal levels - the range is from 985-1700oF. The mixed gases flow through a "waste heat" boiler, or they bypass the boiler and enter a single stack. Steam generation at 150 psig averages 38,200 lb/hr. Heat is wasted via the bypass at a rate of 41.1x106 Btu /hr. at 1240oF. When airflows are reduced (to 15% excess air) the loss will be 18.7x106 Btu/hr. at 1180oF. Installation of a second, parallel waste heat boiler will result in a saving of l3.4x106 Btu/hr. Energy savings at this furnace complex will be equivalent to $628,700 per year. Investment costs were estimated to be less than $250,000 for the proposed heat trap addition.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-33.pdf (1.948Mb)
Energy Conservation Potential in Natural Gas Fueled Reciprocating Engines - A Preliminary Market EvaluationJohnson, D. M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: A study was undertaken of the usage rates of both fuel and lubricants in reciprocating engines fueled with natural gas. The study was conducted to determine the potential for energy conservation, if use is made of more fuel efficient natural gas engine oils. Governmental and non-governmental published reports and personal interviews with users, suppliers, and manufacturers were utilized in estimating fuel and lubricant consumption figures for the year 1976. Certain important facts emerged: 1) The installed horsepower of reciprocating engines fueled by natural gas was estimated at 38,800,000 hp. 2) Reciprocating engines fueled by natural gas operated an estimated 115.2 billion brake horsepower - hours. 3) Total natural gas consumed to operate these reciprocating engines in 1976 was estimated at 962 billion cubic feet. 4) The estimated crankcase and cylinder lubricants consumed in natural gas reciprocating engines in 1976 was 33.6 million gallons. This figure represents 2% of the total United States lubricant usage. 5) Widespread use of more fuel efficient crankcase and cylinder lubricants (containing stable colloidal additives) could result in a savings of 28,850,000,000 cubic feet of natural gas each year. The natural gas thus saved would be sufficient to serve all residential customers in the metropolitan Houston area for nine (9) months of each year.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-32.pdf (1.638Mb)
Turek, P.; Gibson, G. L. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Celanese Chemical Company, Inc. is converting from natural gas to coal as boiler fuel at its petrochemical plant in the Texas Panhandle. Coincident with that fuel conversion is a project in conjunction with Southwestern Public Service Company. High pressure (1450 psig) steam generated from the new Celanese coal-fired boilers will be let down through a 30 megawatt, back pressure, turbine-generator set owned by Southwestern. Heat rate will be approximately 4800 Btu's/kwh. The paper describes some of the utility and industry challenges and how they were met.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-02.pdf (1.686Mb)
Goodman, M. A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: The use of high frequency or ultrasonic vibrations transmitted into and through a suitable medium can increase solution effectiveness. This means that in a continuous cleaning process, ultrasonic activation of the cleaning solution can increase productivity without increasing the energy requirement. Basic principles of ultrasonic activation will be discussed with attention paid to the energy saving aspects.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-30.pdf (1.166Mb)
Fishel, F. D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper investigates the energy savings available by utilizing variable speed motors on pump and fan applications. Conventional control of flow or pressure in process plants is normally accomplished by throttling the various streams with control valves. Depending on the system and the actual operating conditions, this throttling may consume a considerable amount of energy. The hydraulics of different systems are investigated to generalize high energy saving applications. Typical pump characteristics at varying speeds are investigated since most performance curves are only available at a constant speed. The various types of variable speed electric motors are discussed. However, the primary variable speed system recommended is a variable frequency speed system which utilizes standard induction motors. Specific cases of centrifugal pump applications and cooling tower fan service are presented. Turndown frequencies, stream factors, and electric rates are included in the evaluation. The energy savings of a variable speed system becomes significant when flow rates vary widely and the electrical rates are high.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-31.pdf (2.020Mb)
Mordt, E. H. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Liquid phase heating systems involve sensible heat transfer in a closed loop wherein a pumped fluid's temperature is raised in a heater, then lowered in a heat user and returned for reheating. No formation and condensation of vapor occurs. High Temperature Water (HTW) central district heating systems are far superior to steam systems in large, spread out installations such as airports, universities and office complexes. Water, pressurized to keep it in the liquid state, is distributed at 400oF and returned at 250oF. Fuel savings due to elimination of steam cycle losses are surprisingly large. HTW reduces distribution costs, eliminates corrosion and lowers maintenance. For temperatures much above 400oF, the pressure in a steam or water system becomes excessive. Here, the High Temperature/Low Pressure (HT/LP) organic thermal liquids are applicable. The higher the temperature, the greater the potential fuel savings over a conventional steam system. Less expensive low pressure heat users may be used. Water treatment, corrosion, freeze-up hazard, and blow down cooling and disposal problems are eliminated. Operating engineers are not required in many parts of the country for these safe, low pressure systems. HT/LP fluids have some drawbacks. They will degrade if overheated and will oxidize at elevated temperatures. They are flammable, difficult to contain and are somewhat costly. Most of them are toxic, and some of them have acute unpleasant odors. However, for most applications, their benefits far outweigh their shortcomings. Liquid phase heating systems have much to offer in initial, operating and maintenance cost reductions. Most important, they can significantly aid in our energy conservation efforts. Consider them for your next application.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-29.pdf (1.783Mb)