Browsing Energy Systems Laboratory by Issue Date
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Solt, J. C. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper traces the development of cogeneration systems in industry, and discusses some early applications. The effect of changing markets and economic conditions is evaluated and specific examples are presented to illustrate the increasingly favorable climate for cogeneration system applications in today's energy conscious society.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-03.pdf (1.859Mb)
Singh, K. P. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: The concept of a "Divided-flow" heat exchanger is generalized by locating the shell inlet (or outlet) nozzle off-center such that the two shell sub-streams are unequal and traverse unequal flow paths. The governing equations for heat transfer in such an exchanger are derived and solved leading to an optimization problem. In this problem, the optimal subdivision of heat transfer surface to minimize required overall heat transfer surface, under certain restricted conditions, is sought. It is shown that the off-center nozzle location can be selected judiciously so as to maintain (or even improve heat transfer) while reducing the gross shellside pressure loss. Thus, the pumping costs are minimized without sacrificing heat transfer.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-09.pdf (1.427Mb)
Grant, S. A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Energy conservation, as viewed by the utility companies, is of real concern due to the energy situation and recent national energy legislation. The conversion programs of the electric utilities, particularly those in the southwestern part of the U. S., to move away from natural gas and oil as boiler fuels to coal and nuclear requires substantial time and money, with much of the cost borne by the utilities' customers.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-120.pdf (1.328Mb)
Viljoen, T. A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Power factor control is a necessary ingredient in any successful Energy Management Program. Many companies are operating with power factors of 70% or less and are being penalized through the electrical utility bill. This paper starts by describing the problem. Reactive power with its subsequent effects is defined and demonstrated through two simple experiments used in programs taught by the Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program. Wiring diagrams for the experiment, are provided with pictures of the equipment, and will be shown at the conference. Typical billing methods involving power factors are described. Then, the alternative methods of improving power factor are discussed with advantages and disadvantages of each. Here, the advantages and disadvantages of various locations in the electrical network are described including the cost of installation and network capacity improvement. Sizing of capacitors is also covered. Finally, some case studies involving power factor improvement are presented. Economic analysis is included.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-121.pdf (1.405Mb)
Buehler, J. H. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper will discuss an Energy Audit conducted in 1976 on Union Carbide's Texas City No. 3 Olefins Ethylene Unit. Staffing, planning, and conduct of an Audit are reviewed. Project endorsement by the multifunctional Energy Audit Team is used to prioritize capital programs. The paper will describe several projects having possible application in other Olefin plants. Preparation and use of an Energy Curve reviewed. An Energy Index graph projects improvements to be achieved by implementation of a four-year $44 million capital program which resulted from the Audit. Reorganization of the Olefin unit technical staff to complete the energy conservation program is covered. Several techniques being used to insure operator and maintenance commitment to energy conservation are reviewed. The Texas City No. 3 Olefins Unit is an LPG based ethylene plant rated in excess of one billion pounds per year. Since start-up in 1968, energy costs have escalated by a factor of ten. The unit's current energy bill exceeds $45 million per year. Between 1972 and 1977 the Olefin plant conversion energy index increased by 40%. Concerned with rising fuel price and decreasing energy efficiency, management decided to conduct an Energy Audit on the Olefins Unit. This paper discusses the audit and implementation of the resulting conservation program. The paper is divided into four sections: I. The Energy Audit II. Energy Curve III. Energy Index and Energy Projects IV. Operating Department Organization
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-115.pdf (1.850Mb)
Repschleger, W. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper briefly reviews the production volume-energy usage correlation method developed and used at the Texas City plant to measure energy conservation progress. It includes basic logic of energy roll to users, conversion of cost sheet utilities quantities to common energy units with balanced conversion factors, correlation of monthly energy usages with production rates, and the use of these production energy correlations to measure subsequent energy performance. Graphical illustrations demonstrate the validity of the method chosen for establishing the "BEST" achievable practical performance based on prior years' performance data. The annually established BEST energy performance for each department is incorporated into the plant computer energy program which reports monthly energy usage at comparable production rates compared with: 1) BEST energy usage (1972 through previous year), 2) previous year's energy usage, and 3) 1972 energy usage. Emphasis is placed on comparison with the "BEST" to stimulate continuing improvement.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-113.pdf (1.339Mb)
Harrison, M. R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: In the wake of rapidly rising energy costs, insulation systems are receiving much attention from design engineers and owners in the industrial market. This paper discusses the significant properties of the primary industrial insulations as well as the application requirements which lead to proper insulation usage. In addition, the basic reasons for insulating are discussed in terms of how they affect the determination of insulation thickness. The discussion concentrates on piping and equipment insulations and does not deal with refractory materials or usage.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-116.pdf (1.427Mb)
Govindan, T. S. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Du Pont Energy Management Services has done energy studies at a number of refining and petrochemical plants. These studies are done through a rigorous, systematic, and objective analysis of all plant systems and equipment that convert, transport, use, or reject significant quantities of energy. The approach taken for these studies and several examples of specific energy savings items will be reviewed. The importance of an optimum steam system for overall energy efficiency will be discussed. The economical use of topping turbines in the steam system versus other mechanical energy options, savings possible from combustion versus other mechanical energy options, savings possible from combustion excess air control in boilers and fired heaters, and energy saving techniques on distillation columns will be reviewed. The discussion will also include an explanation of the key points in developing a successful energy conservation program.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-111.pdf (1.143Mb)
Doerr, R. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: In 1974, the Manufacturing Chemists Association (MCA) developed an energy rate method for reporting the energy conservation results of the chemical industry to the Federal Energy Administration. The MCA Energy Rate Method has served as a model for other industries and the government. The MCA method is simple, provides flexibility and permits easy aggregation of data within a corporation and industry. It has stood the test of time (5 years) and has proven to be an excellent method for calculating conservation results.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-112.pdf (1.355Mb)
McBride, R. B. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: During the second and third quarters of 1978, the process design function of Union Carbide's Chemicals and Plastics Division's Engineering Department prepared project energy statements for eight major capital projects. These eight statements listed an average conversion energy index reduction of 36% when comparing the new facilities to the existing facilities they were replacing or augmenting.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-114.pdf (892.4Kb)
Tipton, J. A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Bartlesville (Oklahoma) Energy Technology Center (BETC) engineers made a study of recycling waste heat from one of the Power Plant boilers. The study showed that a system could be designed that would reclaim this waste heat and then utilize it to preheat air for boiler operation. The system incorporated a heat pipe heat exchanger flanged in a stack by-pass loop that would efficiently capture and transfer heat at low temperature differences (?T 350-5000 F). After reclaiming heat from this source, the burner air supply is preheated by passing through the heat exchanger. Sensitive design problems that had to be resolved were: Overall cost-effectiveness; below dew point cooling of stack gas causing acid corrosion; and selection of an effective heat exchanger for this application The candidate boiler is one of two that generate high temperature hot water (HTHW) for BETC facility heating and cooling. One unit normally handles the heating and cooling load while the other is in standby status. The preheat system was designed by BETC engineers. The new stack assembly was fabricated by a local metal shop, and was installed by BETC maintenance personnel. The cost of the heat exchanger and other hard-ware was $7,562. Operational results show that boiler efficiency has increased between 6 and 7 percent, which reflects the percent of reduction in fuel consumption. At full-load conditions, the burner supply air is preheated to 350oF and stack gas is cooled to 310oF. Corrosion damage to the heat exchanger and other internal parts are non-existent. Natural gas is the boiler fuel, and as expected, no residue coating of the heat exchanger has developed. To date, we are well pleased with the performance of the system. The savings in fuel and dollars speaks for itself. We are optimistic that this approach of reclaiming heat is not only technically feasible, but also cost-effective for many industry boilers that emit low temperature stack gas.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-55.pdf (1.237Mb)
Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers by Dry Removal with Lime and Limestone SorbantsSchwartz, M. H. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Over the past decade increasing concern over the potential environmental impact associated with the emissions of both gaseous and particulate pollutants has resulted in the promulgation of strict regulatory standards governing such emissions. In this regard, particular attention has been placed upon the control of sulfur dioxide (SO2) from major fuel burning installations. The provisions of the 1977 Amendments to the Clean Air Act which relate to the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) have made consideration of this problem of significant additional importance in the context of increased coal utilization. There exist three general methods for the control of sulfur dioxide emissions from pulverized coal-fired boiler equipment. These are: (1) coal cleaning to remove pyritic sulfur, (2) conventional wet, nonregenerable scrubbing with alkaline slurry and solution processes, and (3) dry processes which involve direct introduction of lime or limestone into the firebox, or a spray dryer operated with nonregenerable alkaline sorbents coupled with a fabric filter collector. Equipment requirements, SO2 removal criteria, general economics, and potential applications of these latter two approaches within category (3) will be discussed.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-100.pdf (1.733Mb)
Harr, K. S.; Hutto, F. B., Jr. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: A method has been developed for measuring heat losses from insulated systems in the field. While the measurements are not as precise as those made under laboratory conditions, they are more indicative of actual in service conditions. Extensive field tests have been carried out in petrochemical plants and power plants throughout the country. Some insulating materials have been found to lose up to 60% of their insulating value after a few years in service. Calcium silicate insulations were found to be the most durable.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-58.pdf (6.068Mb)
Babson, P. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Operating a plant at off-design conditions can incur many penalties, some immediate, some long range. An immediate penalty could be increased unit energy costs and possibly product quality deterioration. A long-range penalty will be possible exposure of machinery to possible overload, surge, or various system upsets which can deteriorate components, accelerate wear, and set up problems such as misalignments which may interrupt production months from the time of occurrence. Downtime, whether planned or unscheduled, results in increased costs and in lost production. All machinery inevitably develops problems. The basic issue is preventing these problems from destroying machinery, endangering personnel, or upsetting production schedules. Knowing the operating condition of plant machinery and demonstrating an ability to schedule downtime for periods of minimum penalty is a large measure of the maintenance planner's effectiveness.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-59.pdf (1.092Mb)
Verneau, A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: The use of Organic Rankine Cycle for waste heat recovery presents several characteristics which are analyzed in details. After a short comparison with steam cycles, the Organic Rankine Cycle is described : its simplicity is shown and achievable efficiencies versus heat source temperature are given. Available fluids are presented. The choice of the fluid allows a good adaptation to temperature and power for each application. The most interesting field for Organic Rankine Cycles are low mechanical powers of a few megawatts and medium temperatures, about 500 C/600 C, for flue gas. The very simple technology of turbines is shown. Three examples are presented. The first one is a test loop of 300 thermal kW built in BERTIN & Cie laboratory to experiment a supersonic turbine designed by the same company for organic vapor at 250 C. The second gives the main characteristics of recovery from exhaust gas of Diesel engines. The last deals with possible recovery from air quenching of clinker in cement plants.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-109.pdf (1.580Mb)
Greenwood, R. W. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Electric power bills can often be reduced by careful attention to the inter-relationship between your plant operations and the electric rate schedule on which your bill is based. The pattern of use of electricity by your plant over a given time span is called its load profile. A continuous process operating 365 days a year would have a flat profile whether measured on a daily, weekly, monthly or yearly basis. But most plant profiles ere not flat because operations may not be consistent for three shifts a day, seven days a week, all year. Profile characteristics of interest to your utility are maximum demand, load factor, time of demand peaks and valleys and power factor. After discussing each of these characteristics below, we will discuss how electric rate schedules are designed, how they are analyzed, and where you can look for possible savings.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-96.pdf (1.515Mb)
Gordon, J. B.; White, D. M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: A major problem associated with energy conservation projects is how to estimate the financial savings associated with a reduction in energy consumption. Although many conservation projects can be implemented in a matter of months, the energy savings may extend over a period of years or decades. The decision to initiate a conservation project often hinges upon the favorable outcome of an "engineering economics" or "present worth" analysis which compares present costs and future incomes. For a conservation project, four sets of data are required for the economic analysis: project cost, rate of return or discount rate, the amount of energy saved, and the future price of energy. Estimating the future price of electricity requires considerable effort since utilities in Texas will be using a mix of fuels. This paper analyzes the cost of generating electricity from nuclear power, out-of-state coal, in-state lignite, fuel oil, natural gas, geothermal, and solar power. These costs are then used to estimate system costs for an electric utility with various mixes of power plants. The electricity costs can then be used to determine the economic value of various conservation projects.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-105.pdf (1.638Mb)
Prengle, H. W. Jr.; Golden, S. A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper considers three related questions: 1) What are the primary economic driving forces which determine the rate of industrial energy conservation? 2) How much industrial energy conservation has been achieved over 1972-1973 levels? 3) What are the goals and expectations for decreases in industrial energy use during the next 10-20 years? The specific energy consumption (SEC) of a plant or industry, measured in BTU of fuel used/ton of product produced, can be used to monitor the energy conserved. The rate of SEC reduction is a function of five primary variables: the potential for reduction of the SEC, the unit cost of fuel, the capital available for implementation of conservation measures, the quantity of fuel available, and the availability: of equipment to implement needed conservation measures. A mathematical-economic model is proposed for the decrease in energy use, and permits calculation of dollars saved also. Conclusions from the study are: 1) Potential savings were estimated as 20-31% of 1972 levels; through 1978 a 13-20% actual reduction in energy use has been achieved. 2) The additional can be realized by; 1982 by "strong action", or by 1987 by "moderate action". To date moderate action has been taken. 3) Overall energy conservation pays out rapidly - dollars saved return dollars invested many fold!
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-103.pdf (1.312Mb)
West, H. H.; Patton, J. M.; Starling, K. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: The subject of selecting working fluid and process operating conditions for the waste heat binary power cycle is addressed herein. The waste heat temperature range from 300 F to 500 F was considered the economic resource range. The available literature on selection of a working fluid for the relatively low level binary power cycle has concentrated on the paraffinic and halogenated hydrocarbons. In order to examine a wider variety of potential working fluids, including mixtures tailored to suit the conditions of the power cycle, a fluid screening procedure was developed. The effect of mixture working fluids on Rankine cycle performance is compared with the increased performance that can be achieved with the multiple or cascade boiler configurations. Preliminary studies indicate that mixtures may provide a net power increase of about 20%.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-110.pdf (1.170Mb)
Plaster, W. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Immense amounts of energy are being thrown away every day in petroleum refineries, chemical plants, and throughout all types of industrial operations. Much of this energy is at temperature levels below 350OF and is typically rejected to the atmosphere through cooling towers and air fin coolers. We will designate this as "low-level heat". Between 20 to 30% of all the energy that enters a plant is lost as low-level heat. In a 100,000 BPD refinery, this is the equivalent of about 2,500 BPD of oil, or 15 billion Btu's per day. If any improvement can be made in the recovery and reuse of this heat, the energy efficiency of our plants would be significantly increased.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-108.pdf (1.124Mb)