Browsing Published Articles by Title
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Marshall, K.; Moss, M.; Liu, B.; Culp, C.; Haberl, J.; Herbert, C. (IBPSA-USA (http://www.ibpsa.us), August 2010)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper discusses AIM, or Assess, Improve, Measure. AIM is an energy efficiency calculator for existing residences that has been developed to provide homeowners, realtors and builders with a method to rate the energy efficiency of an existing house using a minimum number of inputs. To accomplish this, AIM uses DOE-2 loads simulations and a simplified systems model. To simplify the use of the calculator, parameters such as window U-factor, roof and wall insulation, which are normally required for simulations in existing homes, are automatically provided using statistical tables. This allows homeowners to use the calculator with information commonly available during a real estate transaction.
Files in this item: 1ESL-PA-10-08-02.pdf (2.122Mb)
An Analysis of Building Envelope Upgrades for Residential Energy Efficiency in Hot and Humid ClimatesMalhotra, M.; Haberl, J. (IBPSA-USA (http://www.ibpsa.us), August 2006)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper presents the results of the analyses of various envelope upgrades for residential energyefficiency in hot and humid climates. The building components considered for the upgrades include: building shape, construction type, roof and exterior walls, and windows. A DOE-2 simulation model of a 2000/2001 IECC code-compliant house in Houston, Texas, was used for the analysis. The results demonstrated the effect of incremental changes in these properties on the building's energy use, and showed that combining potential envelope upgrades can accomplish a 55% cooling energy use reduction, a 100% heating energy use reduction, and a 16% total energy use reduction for code-compliant houses in hot and humid climates.
Files in this item: 1ESL-PA-06-08-02.pdf (6.922Mb)
Visitsak, S.; Haberl, J. S. (IBPSA-USA (http://www.ibpsa.us), August 2004)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper presents preliminary results of efforts to test the boundaries of the Givoni-Milne (G-M, 1979) bioclimatic design strategy chart, using DOE-2 simulations of a code-complaint single-story, slab-ongrade, single-family residence in selected climates. The analysis includes graphical and tabular presentations of the annual hourly simulations superimposed upon the G-M bioclimatic chart using weather data from selected climates.
Files in this item: 1ESL-PA-04-08-03.pdf (1.600Mb)
Analysis of the Energy Savings Potential in K-5 Schools in Hot and Humid Climates: Application of High Performance Measures and Renewable Energy SystemsIm, P.; Haberl, J. (IBPSA-USA (http://www.ibpsa.us), August 2010)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper presents the analysis of the energy savings potential in an existing K-5 school in hot and humid climates. Previous paper (Im and Haberl 2008b) presented a calibrated simulation procedure for an existing K-5 school in hot and humid area, and the first step of the energy savings potential analysis by applying the energy savings measures recommended as in the ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guides for K-12 Schools. As an effort to investigate more energy savings potential for the school building, several other energy savings measures and renewable energy measures were applied to the target building. Those measures include: increased glazing U-value, VFD application for the HVAC system, cold deck reset, variable speed for pumps, high-efficiency boiler, skylights, and the application of solar thermal and PV systems. The final simulation results show that the estimated Energy Use Index (EUI) of the school by applying all the measures but the solar thermal and PV systems would be 29.9 kBtu/sqft (i.e., 38.6 % energy savings against the baseline school). In addition, solar thermal and PV systems were designed to provide half of the electricity demand and all the SWH demand of the school building, respectively. The final EUI for the school with the solar thermal and PV systems was estimated to be 15 kBtu/sqft.
Files in this item: 1ESL-PA-10-08-05.pdf (1.492Mb)
Calculation of NOx Emissions Reductions From Energy Efficient Residential Building Construction in TexasHaberl, J. S.; Culp, C.; Gilman, D.; Yazdani, B.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Muns, S. (Energy Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, May 23, 2006)[more][less]
Abstract: Four areas in Texas have been designated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as non-attainment areas because ozone pollution levels exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) maximum allowable limits. These areas face severe sanctions if attainment is not reached by 2007. This paper provides an overview of the procedures that have been developed and used to calculate the electricity savings and NOx reductions from code-compliant residential construction in non-attainment and affected counties. This paper reviews the calculation methods and presents results that show the 2003 annual electricity and natural gas savings and NOx reductions from implementation of the 2000 IECC to single-family and multi-family residences in 2003, which use a code-tracable DOE-2 simulation. A discussion of the development of a web-based emissions reductions calculator is also discussed.
Files in this item: 1ESL-PA-04-10-01.pdf (991.5Kb)
Bagneid, A.; Haberl, J. (IBPSA-USA (http://www.ibpsa.us), August 2006)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper describes a calibrated stand-alone courtyard microclimate model. This model is considered to be the fIrst calibrated computer program for the simulation of courtyard microclimates. In order to accomplish this a calibrated simplifIed thermal simulation model for predicting courtyard microclimates was created that is based on a Finite Difference (FD) simulation model of an RC thermal network of the courtyard. The courtyard microclimate model was validated against fIeld data from a case study courtyard house. The model allowed running parametric sensitivity studies on the courtyard thermal simulation factors. The model was then used to produce annual hourly courtyard microclimate weather fIle for use by the DOE-2 building thermal simulation program. This courtyard microclimate model is also a part of a larger research project that aims to analyze the thermal performance of courtyard houses. The overall project measured a case study courtyard house in the winter and summer for the calibration of the simulated courtyard microclimate, and then used the simulated microclimate weather fIle in a DOE-2 simulation of the courtyard house to better predict the courtyard house thermal performance. This paper will describe the method used in creating the courtyard model and present results of its application to the case study courtyard.
Files in this item: 1ESL-PA-06-08-03.pdf (6.294Mb)
Comprehensive Community NOx Emission Reduction Methodology: Overview and Results from the Application to a Case Study CommunitySung, Y. H.; Haberl, J. S. (IBPSA-USA (http://www.ibpsa.us), August 2004)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper reports on the development of a methodology to estimate energy use in a community and its associated effects on air pollution. This methodology would allow decision makers to predict the impacts of various energy conservation options and efficiency programs on air pollution reduction, which will help local governments and their residents understand how to reduce pollution and mange the information collection needed to accomplish this. This paper presents a broad overview of a community-wide energy use and NOx emissions inventory process and discusses detailed procedures used to calculate the residential sector's energy use and its associated NOx emissions. In an effort to better understand community-wide energy use and its associated NOx emissions, the City of College Station, Texas, was selected as a case study community to demonstrate the application of this methodology.
Files in this item: 1ESL-PA-04-08-01.pdf (2.303Mb)
Cho, S.; Haberl, J. (IBPSA-USA (http://www.ibpsa.us), July 2009)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper presents the results of implementing 14 high-performance measures in a prototypical office building in a hot and humid climate using the DOE-2 simulation program. The objectives of this research were to discover high-performance measures applicable to office buildings in hot and humid climates and to develop a high-performance (maximum energy-efficient) building model that only uses technologies readily available in the contemporary market. The high-performance model showed 48% total energy savings above the ASHRAE 90.1-1999 code and 61% savings when compared to the calibrated simulation model of the case-study building. The results show that substantial energy savings can be achieved only by using common technologies.
Files in this item: 1ESL-PA-09-07-02.pdf (999.2Kb)
Development of a Simplified Simulation Tool for High Performance K-5 Schools in Hot and Humid ClimatesIm, P.; Haberl, J. S. (IBPSA-USA (http://www.ibpsa.us), August 2008)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper presents the preliminary results of an effort to develop a simplified simulation-based tool for designing K-5 high performance schools in hot and humid climates. As a first step of the research, a survey to define the dominant school building shape was conducted in an independent school district in Central Texas. This survey used satellite views of the K-5 schools, where each school shape was classified based on the classification defined by Perkins (2001). In addition, more surveys and a literature review was performed to verify input parameters to drive the building size and other building characteristics. Once the simulation tool and the default parameters are developed, this tool is intended to be used to estimate building energy consumption with limited information about the school building. This paper reports on the classification scheme and automatic building shape generator, as well as preliminary results describing calibration of the simulation to a case study K-5 school.
Files in this item: 1ESL-PA-08-08-06.pdf (3.108Mb)
Development of a Simulation Toolkit for the Selection of High-Performance Systems for Office Buildings in Hot and Humid Climates (Phase I: Calibrated Simulation of the Case Study Building)Cho, S.; Haberl, J. S. (IBPSA-USA (http://www.ibpsa.us), August 2008)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper reports on the development of an easy-to-use tool for the selection of high-performance systems in office buildings in hot and humid climates. In this paper, the preliminary results of a calibrated simulation of a typical large office building are presented for the John Connally building (124,000 sq-ft) in College Station, TX. To calibrate the DOE-2 simulation model, measured data were retrieved from permanently installed data loggers in the building, which measured whole-building electricity use and sub-metered cooling electricity use, lighting and miscellaneous equipment use, as well as thermal energy measurements for chilled water and hot water use. Also used in the calibration process were portable data loggers for comparing the performance of the building’s air-handling units with the simulated performance. For the calibration of the DOE-2 model, several calibration methodologies were used, including manual & iterative calibrations, graphical & statistical analysis, and signature analysis. This calibrated simulation model will be used as a base-case model for the development of a easy-to-use simulation tool for the selection of high-performance systems in office buildings in hot and humid climates. This paper presents the calibrated simulation results of the office building and outlines the additional steps for the development of the high-performance systems selection tool.
Files in this item: 1ESL-PA-08-08-07.pdf (3.000Mb)
Haberl, J.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B. (IBPSA-USA (http://www.ibpsa.us), July 2009)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper describes the development of a web-based, code-compliant ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 commercial simulation for Texas. Included in the paper is a description of the software and database platform used in the web application and how this software is attached to the DOE-2 legacy software running on a cluster of servers. This tool will be used by commercial builders in Texas to check code compliance of new commercial construction for specific building types.
Files in this item: 1ESL-PA-09-07-03.pdf (627.5Kb)
Haberl, J.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B. (IBPSA-USA (http://www.ibpsa.us), July 2009)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper describes the development of a web-based, code-compliant 2001 IECC1 residential simulation for Texas. Included in the paper is a description of the software and database platform used in the web application and how this software is attached to the DOE-2 legacy software running on a cluster of servers attached to the web. Additional information is included about how a residence is dynamically updated by the web-page, using macro commands and a flexible yet fixed-schematic input file. This tool is currently in use by builders in Texas to check code compliance of new residential construction. It also calculates NOx, SOx and CO2 emissions reductions from the energy savings of the proposed house for the electric utility associated with the user using the data from the Emissions and Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID) provided by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Files in this item: 1ESL-PA-09-07-01.pdf (822.5Kb)
The Development of Improved Energy Efficient Housing for Thailand Utilizing Renewable Energy TechnologyRasisuttha, S.; Haberl, J. (IBPSA-USA (http://www.ibpsa.us), August 2004)[more][less]
Abstract: The paper reports on the results of research to reduce energy consumption in residential buildings in a hot and humid climate region (Thailand) using efficient architectural building components, energy efficient building systems, and renewable energy systems (solar energy) to produce electricity and heat domestic hot water. The solar energy system used in the analysis of the supplemental energy was a hybrid photovoltaicthermal (PV-T2) collector system, which is a combination photovoltaic (for producing electricity) and solar thermal collector (for producing hot water), and night-time radiator for radiating unwanted heat to the night sky. The research methods used in this work included instrumentation of a case study house, experimental data collected from an experimental PV-T2 collector system (Rasisuttha 2004), and calibrated building thermal simulation using DOE-2 (LBNL, 1982; 2000).
Files in this item: 1ESL-PA-04-08-02.pdf (795.1Kb)
Dorhofer, F. J.; Heffington, W. M. (Energy Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, April 1994)[more][less]
Abstract: The Energy Systems Laboratory (ESL) at Texas A&M University is currently monitoring the electrical energy use of a metal fabrication facility in Houston, Texas. This paper deals with the installation of the data acquisition system and subsequent analysis of 15-minute data. The data acquisition system has been used to justify energy conservation retrofits, increase productivity, and monitor plant activities. Projected future uses include quantifying savings from retrofits. Uses of the data and the resolution of early problems in dealing with the large amount of data generated each month will be discussed.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-94-04-59.pdf (4.254Mb)
Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.; Kissock, J. K.; Reddy, T. A. (Energy Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, March 1993)[more][less]
Abstract: While computer technology has vastly increased the quantity and quality of measured building energy use data, our ability to analyze the data has not kept step. As a result, building energy use data that could be used to identify operational and maintenance problems, determine retrofit savings, or point to new and innovative ways to reduce energy costs are routinely discarded. In this paper, we draw upon information system and data analysis theory to introduce EModel, a new tool for the analysis of building energy use data. EModel simplifies the previously laborious tasks of data browsing, reformatting and modeling through a user-friendly, Windows-based interface. Graphical, statistical, and residual analysis are performed with simple mouse clicks. Currently, EModel is used by the Texas LoanSTAR program to model pre and post-retrofit energy use so that retrofit savings can be determined. Its use to identify energy use models at a large institutional building is demonstrated.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-93-03-33.pdf (3.251Mb)
Razinha, J. A.; Heffington, W. M. (Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University, May 2000)[more][less]
Abstract: The twenty-five most frequently suggested energy saving assessment recommendations in the Industrial Assessment Center program national database were examined using linear regression techniques to correlate between energy savings and demand reduction, and implementation costs. Poor overall correlations indicate that direct prediction of savings from implementation costs is generally unfeasible, with a limited number of exceptions. Correlations for the twenty-five most frequently suggested Texas A&M University recommendations were better than those for the national dataset. The value of this procedure to speed assessments seems not worthwhile considering the poor correlations and the value of the calculations it would replace.
Description: The Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) program, funded by the Department of Energy (DOE), consists of faculty and student teams from 30 universities nationwide that perform industrial assessments of small and medium-size manufacturing firms. Program goals include providing university students with energy conservation learning experiences combined with service to private manufacturers. These assessments target energy and waste stream reduction opportunities, as well as productivity improvements. A typical assessment consists of utility use analysis, a site visit, and a written report that summarizes the plant’s energy use, production processes, and waste handling. The report will also contain several assessment recommendations (ARs) that are thorough analyses of specific energy or cost saving measures and include expected savings, implementation costs and simple financial analysis (payback).
Files in this item: 1ESL-PA-00-04-01.pdf (104.1Kb)
Energy Conservation Through Improved Industrial Ventilation in Small and Medium-Sized Industrial PlantsSaman, N. F.; Nutter, D. W. (Energy Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, April 1994)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper discusses energy conservation projects in the area of industrial ventilation that have been recommended by the Texas A&M University Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADQ to small and medium-sized industries in Texas. The projects recommended include reducing blower operating time/speed and static pressure for dust collectors, installing radiation shield on ovens, and using outside air for cooling. The projects were recommended to different kinds of industries including wood fabrication, frozen food, primary metals, plastics and insulation products. These projects are predicted to save up to 8% of the plants' utility bills with average simple payback periods of less than three years. Projects that involved blowers (fans) speed/operation time reduction resulted in most savings.
Description: Industrial ventilation is key to providing a suitable working environment for employees and it assists in maintaining safety operation of different processes in an industrial facility. Usually, the emphasis is on designing a ventilation system that works properly. However, due to present and future increases in the costs of equipment and energy, it has become necessary to provide properly operating ventilation systems at reduced initial and running costs. In this paper three types of energy reduction projects that are related to industrial ventilation are discussed. They include reducing blower power, operating time/speed or filter pressure drop for dust collectors; using radiation shields on ovens; and using outside air for cooling process.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-94-04-56.pdf (2.249Mb)
EnergyPlus vs DOE-2: The Effect of Ground Coupling on Heating and Cooling Energy Consumption of a Slab-On-Grade Code House in a Cold ClimateAndolsun, S.; Culp, C.; Haberl, J. (IBPSA-USA (http://www.ibpsa.us), August 2010)[more][less]
Abstract: For low-rise buildings, the heat loss through the ground coupled floor is a significant load component. Studies showed that the current simulation tools give dissimilar results for the ground coupled heat transfer (GCHT) in slab-on-grade constructions. This paper extends the previous comparative work by comparing EnergyPlus and DOE-2.1e results for GCHT based on a slab-ongrade code house in a cold climate. Three GCHT models were used in the study. These models were Winkelmann’s (2002) model in DOE-2.1e, Winkelmann’s model in EnergyPlus and EnergyPlus with its GCHT calculator utility, Slab.
Files in this item: 1ESL-PA-10-08-03.pdf (1.173Mb)
Haberl, J.; Jagannathan, V.; Lopez, R.; Sparks, R.; Kissock, K.; Willis, D.; Claridge, D. (IBPSA-USA (http://www.ibpsa.us), April 1991)[more][less]
Abstract: One of the inherent problems with monitoring hourly energy use and environmental conditions in commercial buildings is efficiently processing the "sea" of data that accumulates into an easily understood form. Even when the data exist, building energy analysts generally rely on multiple "flat" ASCII files for storing and retrieving their data only to find that it can take several hours to perform a simple task such as creating a 2-D time series plot of energy use using data from several monitored channels. Integrated data base structures such as relational data bases, if carefully designed, may offer some relief because they can provide the user with an easier access to the data that automatically keeps track of where data are and how to assemble them to satisfy a particular request. This paper presents a brief review of the different types of data required for a large building monitoring project, and the methods that have been developed for acquiring, archiving and retrieving data for the Texas LoanSTAR program, an eight year, $98.6 million revolving loan program for energy conservation retrofits in Texas state, local government and school buildings.
Files in this item: 1ESL-PA-91-04-01.pdf (2.045Mb)
Sparks, R. J.; Campbell, S.; Kissock, J. K.; Haberl, J. S.; Belur, R. (Energy Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, March 1993)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper explores some techniques which may help facility operators better understand complex hourly energy data by enhancing the display of data with animation (or timesequencing). Animated displays such as the ones presented in this paper enhance the usefulness of the graphic display because time and temperature dependent trends can be more easily seen. There is an increasing need for new display paradigms that can help facility operators efficiently scan and detect problems within the river of incoming data from control systems. This need becomes even more important during times of a shrinking labor pool. In this paper the use of animated displays are described as they apply to the measurement of chilled water where the animated display makes a faulty flow meter easier to diagnose.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-93-03-36.pdf (3.676Mb)