Browsing H&H - Symposium on Improving Building Systems in Hot and Humid Climates by Issue Date
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Houcek, J.; Thedford, M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: The purpose of this report is to provide the results of research evaluating a new method of air conditioning charging and the effects of improper charging. The method is the visual accumulator-charger device. The report identifies seven presently known charging techniques and compares them to the method tested, as well as its accuracy of charging. A research on improper charging compared to the efficiency changes as a result of overcharge and undercharge conditions is the second part of the report. The visual accumulator-charger device proved to be a practical field charging technique for air conditioning systems and demonstrated an accuracy over a temperature range of 70°F to 100°F. It was also demonstrated that the improperly charged unit was dramatically affected.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-84-08-07.pdf (999.4Kb)
Retrofitting of Conditioning Systems for Existing Small Commercial Buildings - Analysis and Design of Liquid Desiccant - Vapor Compression HybridArnas, O. A.; McQueen, T. M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: The combination of several concepts of new energy technologies may make it possible to reduce the energy needs for thermal comfort, especially cooling and dehumidification, in small sized, single-story commercial buildings. The potentials and limitations of retrofit technology for these characteristic structures have been the focus of the experience gained through the design and installation of a system adapted to a building constructed in the early 1960's. The existing split package air conditioning system was combined with a desiccant air-conditioning unit with a waste heat and solar heat reclaim component. While this retrofit system is feasible, a number of questions remain to be considered regarding the design, installation and operation of the total system. This paper focuses on the practical applications of such a hybrid system - both architectural/construction issues and the mechanical components/system considerations.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-84-08-02.pdf (648.3Kb)
Vliet, G. C.; Askey, J. L. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: Similar sets of residences in Austin, Texas with electric water heaters and solar water heaters with electric back-up were monitored during 1982 to determine their instantaneous electric demands, the purpose being to determine the influence of residential solar water heating on electric utility demand. The electric demand of solar water hears was found to be approximately 0.39 kW lass than conventional electric water heaters during the late late afternoon, early evening period in the summer months when the Austin utility experiences its peak demand. The annual load factor would be only very slightly reduced if there were a major penetration of solar water heaters in the all electric housing sector. Thus solar water heating represents beneficial load management for utilities experiencing summer peaks.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-84-08-08.pdf (998.9Kb)
McClure, J. D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: Public schools have a continuing dilemma of escalating energy costs, deferred maintenance, and enrollment shift. Schools have experienced difficulty in dealing with budgeting and subsequent control of maintenance and operating costs. It is essential that schools carefully plan their energy use and cost just as they plan any other resource. This paper discusses experience obtained in assisting Texas Public Schools in using energy more efficiently. Energy management planning and typical energy conservation measures implemented are discussed.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-84-08-04.pdf (700.7Kb)
Fairey, P.; Vieira, R.; Chandra, S.; Kerestecioglu, A.; Kalaghchy, S. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: Currently accepted methods of passive cooling offset only sensible building loads. In the warm, humid southeastern gulf coast climates the latent building load can comprise 35% of the building load in the typical residence. As the sensible load on residences in these climates is reduced or offset by passive cooling techniques, this latent cooling load percentage increases rapidly. In such residences the auxiliary cooling load cannot be effectively met by conventional cooling equipment . The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) is examining the auxiliary cooling requirements of residences in warm, humid climates. The study addresses both the thermal and moisture response of buildings. A total of eight wall systems, three frame wall types and five concrete block wall types are under test at the FSEC Passive Cooling Laboratory (PCL) in Cape Canaveral. Moisture studies involve examination of the absorption and desorption rates of building materials and furnishings and the development of improved moisture migration modeling techniques for inclusion in building energy analysis programs. TARP (Thermal Analysis Research program), developed at NBS by George Walton, and FLOAD, by FCHART Software, have been chosen as the analysis programs with which cooling examined.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-84-08-05.pdf (1.184Mb)
Horn, S. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: One of the first steps in setting up an energy management program in a commercial building is determining operating costs per energy consuming system through a utility cost analysis. This paper illustrates utility cost analysis methods used to determine estimated energy costs by function in a sample commercial facility. Two approaches are used to determine energy utilization and to project calculated energy consumption. Additional analysis of the utility rate structure is necessary before an estimate of operating costs per energy consuming system can be made. With this, it is possible to identify energy conservation opportunities and develop strategies to control energy waste.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-84-08-12.pdf (1.152Mb)
Schneider, K. C.; Pollard, K. W. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: A one-year study was done on a modern dairy operation located in Hopkins County, Texas to determine the load patterns and total energy use of the major electrical loads in the dairy. It was found that the vacuum pumps for the milking machines consumed the most energy, followed by the water heater and milk coolers. Consumption for water heating and milk cooling was found to vary seasonally. Peak demands for the dairy occurred at 6 a.m. and 5 p.m. throughout the year during the morning and afternoon milkings. The morning peak occurred two hours prior to Texas Power & Light Company's winter peak hour, and the evening peak is coincident with TP&L's summer peak hour. It was estimated that a savings of approximately 33% on water heating kWh was attained through a waste heat recovery system connected to the milk coolers. The water heating load was found to have the highest load factor coincident with TP&L's summer peak of any of the loads monitored.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-84-08-11.pdf (1.043Mb)
Smith, A. L. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: The design and application of temperature control systems on a commercial building will bring the question to mind: Should the system be Pneumatic? Should it be Electronic? There is concern as to which system will be more appropriate to a certain project. With cost, maintenance, performance, dependability, and the cost of energy as a main concern of owners, the temperature control system has become an important part of efficient utilization of energy. Application of temperature control systems to heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems has become an integral part of energy management. The first phase of the program will address the problem of selection of a type of system that will be cost and energy efficient, with a minimum maintenance program. One area to be covered will be the technician and his ability to service the temperature control systems, in addition to information on the schools and technical training. The availability of trained and experienced service technicians creates a major problem for remote towns and communities. Control systems are integrated to energy management systems. Without proper maintenance the energy savings will not perform at their design level. A sub-topic on up-to-date temperature control systems with retrofit needs will he included in the presentation.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-84-08-22.pdf (510.0Kb)
Winter, S.; Tuluca, A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: How much insulation should be placed in the ceiling of a home? Which furnace is the best investment? Is reflective glazing a marketable option? The DOE slide rules and accompanying guides are designed to help answer such questions by providing a way to measure the impact on home energy use of a variety of energy conservation options. The whole kit is designed to be accurate and easy to use. It provides guidance on energy efficient construction practices, and a means to quantify them by using the slide rules. An economic analysis is also suggested. The work aims at transferring high level research to non-technical users: homeowners, builders and lenders.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-84-08-21.pdf (733.5Kb)
Armer, A.; Risko, J. R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: For maximum effectiveness in steam systems, steam traps should have operating characteristics which closely match the requirements of the applications for which they are used. A trap which holds back condensate until it is subcooled and some of the sensible heat has been utilized is unsuitable where the need is to get maximum output from an exchanger by discharging condensate as soon as it forms. Equally, a trap discharging condensate at steam temperature can exacerbate flash steam problems in cases where surplus heat exchange area exists and a subcooling trap might be more suitable. In all cases, undersized traps simply cannot drain condensate from the steam equipment at the required rate, while oversized traps which cost more will usually wear faster and begin leaking expensive steam. This emphasizes the need for carefully selecting trap sizes that are properly engineered for maximum system efficiency. And, of course, the ability of a trap to cope with varying loads and to discharge noncondensible gases is often important. The recommended procedure is to first select the trap type which has performance capabilities that satisfy specific application needs, and then to choose a size which handles the condensate load without any unnecessary excess capacity. The Selection Guide, Table 1, is not comprehensive but helps in many applications where no unusual operating conditions or severe corrosion problems exist. Choosing the correct trap size then implies estimating the steam consumption rate, which of course equals the condensate load. Sometimes the load has already been measured, or the rated output of the steam equipment is known or can be obtained from the original manufacturer. In other cases, an estimate must be made and a Table o f Load Formulas will help although it, too, cannot be comprehensive. After making the best possible estimate of the load, a safety factor is applied. This allows for any inaccuracies in the estimating, for increased condensation rates at start-up, and for lower than anticipated pressure differentials across the trap.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-84-08-23.pdf (945.5Kb)
Longserre, J. T.; Ahrens, L. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: For many design professionals, standardization of design and engineering strategies has become a key element in the construction of institutional facilities. Conservation features, such as innovative building design, and energy efficient electrical and mechanical systems are often considered "extras". An increase in these "extras" can mean an increase in budget, leaving the energy conscious customer with the responsibility of weighing additional investment against possible future savings. This paper is an account of the design features of a southwest Texas school project in which energy conservation was an integral, not an "extra", design factor. The result was an aesthetically pleasing, energy savings institutional facility, built within a standard budget.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-84-08-24.pdf (1.006Mb)
Wiernik, L. B.; Ranzau, P. A. (Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu); Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: The concept of designing for energy conservation has long been a concern of Houston Lighting & Power (HL&P), culminating in the development of a local energy conservation design award competition in 1980. This competition sponsored by HL&P and the American Institute of Architects (AIA), strives to increase interest and provide incentive for energy conscious building design among the building community. The success and importance of this competition has been recognized by the Texas Society of Architects who will pattern a state wide competition after this one. Judges evaluate the building entries on architectural design, competitive cost of utilized materials and effective energy conservation techniques. A building that is attractive, energy efficient and economically constructed has the winning combination. This paper details the design concepts of a 1984 Grand Award winner, the Cypress Fairbanks Medical Center Hospital, in the Fourth Annual Energy Conservation Design Award Competition.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-84-08-14.pdf (961.8Kb)
Russell, B. D.; Heller, R. P.; Perry, L. W. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: Energy Management systems and particularly demand controllers are becoming more popular as commercial and light industrial operations attempt to reduce their electrical usage and demand. Numerous techniques are used to control energy use and demand and many manufacturers are offering equipment. This study attempts to characterize and quantify the effects of various control philosophies used in these equipments. Monitoring and control equipment has been installed in commercial facilities with results used in this study. Individual loads have been characterized by their demand contribution and run times. Load profiles and demand histories for various facilities have been used to analyze several energy control philosophies. The results from pre and post control situations are herein presented by using the collected field data. It has been found that facilities which appear quite similar may vary in load characteristics such that the same control philosophies may not produce the same result in demand limiting or energy savings. Specifically, the proper energy management philosophy depends not only on the operation of the facility, but also on the characteristics of the individual loads which may be controlled. This paper gives comments concerning scheduling control concepts and demand limiting philosophy. Special recommendations are made regarding demand control techniques.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-84-08-20.pdf (964.5Kb)
Hufford, P. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: This presentation describes the actual design consideration and field operation experience of two-stage parallel flow absorption chillers. The applications include new construction, rehabilitation of old HVAC systems, cogeneration, and industrial process heat recovery. The high performance (COP = 1.14), and reduced maintenance cost of the two-stage parallel flow absorption chiller provides a notable improvement over the conventional single stage absorption chillers (COP = .6). The infamous reputation of the single stage absorption chiller for crystallization, poor mechanical performance, and general unreliability has been completely neutralized by new design concepts incorporated in the two-stage parallel flow absorption chiller/heater. The ease of maintenance and virtual elimination of crystallization has vastly improved chilled water production and mechanical longevity. The two-stage parallel flow absorption chiller is adaptable to various heat sources including direct fired multi-fuel, steam, exhaust, hot water, thermal fluids, etc. This makes this chiller a worthy consideration as an alternate to electrically driven refrigeration. The two-stage parallel flow absorption chiller has been operating in the United States since 1979 and there is presently over 24,000 tons of installed capacity online. Installations include office buildings, hospitals, computer centers, industrial process water and others.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-84-08-13.pdf (813.5Kb)
Wagers, H. L. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: Over the last eleven years Houston Lighting & Power has raised utility rates an average of 17% per year. Over the last 3 1/2 years the utility rates have doubled. According to Houston City Magazine, Houstonians can expect future raises of 20-25% annually due to required construction of new utility plants to accommodate Houston's future growth. Utility costs could, and in many cases do, exceed the monthly mortgage payment. This has caused all to become concerned with what can be done to lower the utility bill for homes. In a typical Gulf Coast home approximately 50% of household utility costs are due to the air conditioning system, another 15-20% of utility costs are attributed to hot water heating. The remaining items in the home including lights, toaster, washer, dryer, etc. are relatively minor compared to these two "energy gulpers". Reducing air conditioning and hot water heating costs are therefore the two items on which homeowners should concentrate.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-84-08-16.pdf (425.7Kb)
Bakken, B. M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: One of the newest advances in computer technology is the Local Area Network. Its many applications in the office environment are well publicized. This paper describes the application of Local Area Networks to another environment: Energy Management systems. The idea of the Local Area Network is described, and it is compared to the distributed processing technique, one that is more commonly used in energy management systems. The two techniques are compared by applying each to common examples, and pros and cons are discussed. Examples of energy management systems using the Local Area Network technique are then presented.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-84-08-19.pdf (1.005Mb)
Warnick, T. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: Capital outlays for energy management must be economically attractive to warrant an expenditure. An energy management system has one of the most economic returns for an investment decision, if applied effectively. The Quaker Oats Company installed such a System in its Dallas Distribution Center. In one year the electric bills were reduced by a total of $17,668.91. Electric consumption (KWH) was reduced by thirty-one percent, electrical demand (KW) was reduced by thirty-six percent while plant operations expanded. This paper discusses the control strategies employed by the energy management system and provided the resultant savings that was obtained from the first year of operation.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-84-08-18.pdf (742.1Kb)
Gidwani, B. N. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: Chilled water systems are one of the major energy consumers in industrial, commercial, and institutional complexes. The centralization of chilled water systems has considerable advantages, namely: simplified controls, the installed capacity is reduced due to diversity, consolidated maintenance and operation, etc. With chilled water systems, the following areas present potential energy and cost savings: Chilled Water Reset Condenser Water Reset Sequencing of the Chillers Chilled Water Storage Variable Chilled Water Pumping In this paper the feasibility aspect of each of the above items will be discussed.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-84-08-15.pdf (1.009Mb)
The Value of the EWIT Computer Program in Identifying Economically Viable Retrofit Options for Existing Commercial BuildingsAndrews, W. M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: The Energy What If Tool (EWIT) program developed by the New Mexico firm of Area. Inc., offers architects and environmental designers a new and viable means to model the energy performance of their building designs while in the schematic phase by means of a personal computer. Previously the only way that such data could be obtained was by purchasing time on mainframe systems to run such programs as BLAST or DOE II. EWIT, however, is a program designed specifically to be run on the IBM personal computer; a machine well within the means financially of even the most modest office. The program yields data proven accurate to within 80-90% of the aforementioned BLAST and DOE II mainframe programs. The purpose of this research effort is to investigate EWIT's potential as a tool for evaluating retrofit options for existing commercial buildings. To achieve this goal two case buildings in the Denver area were analyzed by means of the EWIT program. The first building is a one story structure of 10,000 square feet in floor area while the second is a hi-rise office building of almost a million square feet. The goal of the project is to produce a documented procedure for utilizing EWIT in retrofit applications and in the process develop VISICALC financial templates that can be integrated with the output from EWIT which would provide a comparative economic basis where the merits or shortcomings of various retrofit options can be quickly determined. While the above two case studies were conducted, space limitations would allow only the findings for the smaller structure (day care center) to be published in these proceedings. However, this case study does present a comprehensive picture of the EWIT retrofit analysis and its potential to architects and designers.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-84-08-03.pdf (893.7Kb)
Winn, C. B.; Burns, P.; Guire, J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: A gas-fired vented zone heater has recently been developed by the Altar Corporation for Colorado State University (CSU) under a Gas Research Institute (GRI) contract. The unit war developed for auxiliary heating applications in passive solar buildings. An early prototype was tested at Altas and operated as expected. The final model was shipped to CSU in December 1983 for testing in the REPEAT Facility at CSU. A heat pipe extends through the wall to the outside of the building. It has a modest water charge which can freeze repeatedly with no damage, since the heat pips is only partially filled. Firing efficiency at 4,000 Btu/b (1.17 kW thermal) is approximately 80%. The unit features a 3 foot by 3 foot radiator mounted inside the room to be heated, and is thermostatically controlled. Ignition is accomplished with an electronic sparker (pilot). The radiator typically operates at 150-180°F (65-82°C), and has been operated at between 2,000 and 5,000 Btu/h (0.6-1.47 kW). Results of testing the vented heat pipe zone heater at CSU arm presented. Also, a method for determining the optimal combination of zone heater, passive solar heating and energy conservation measures has been developed. Nomographs have been developed that may be used by a building designer to determine the optimal combination of zone heater size, passive solar system size, and energy conservation measures for given types of passive solar heating systems in selected locations. A representative nomograph is presented along with a design example.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-84-08-06.pdf (1.062Mb)