Browsing H&H - Symposium on Improving Building Systems in Hot and Humid Climates by Title
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Hufford, P. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1986)[more][less]
Abstract: Contrary to popular concept, in most cases, thermal energy is the real VALUE in cogeneration and not the electricity. The proper consideration of the thermal demands is equal to or more important than the electrical demands. High efficiency two-stage absorption chillers of the type used at Rice University Cogen Plant offer the most attractive utilization of recoverable thermal energy. With a coefficient of performance (COP) up to 1.25, the two-stage, parallel flow absorption chiller can offer over fifty (50) percent more useful thermal energy from the same waste heat source--gas turbine exhaust, I.C. engine exhaust and jacketwater, incinerator exhaust, or steam turbine extraction.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-86-11-16.pdf (374.0Kb)
McIlvaine, J.; Beal, D.; Moyer, N.; Chasar, D.; Chandra, S. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2004)[more][less]
Abstract: This Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) study, conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP), compares mastic sealed duct systems to tape sealed systems by showing measured total duct leakage (CFM25TOTAL and QnTOTAL) and/or measured leakage to the outside (CFM25OUT and QnOUT) in 190 manufactured home floors or home sections. All manufacturers were considering or actively working toward achieving duct leakage below 3% of the conditioned floor area (QnOUT=0.03), consistent with Energy Star Manufactured Homes criteria. Previous field tests suggest that CFM25OUT accounts for about half of CFM25TOTAL. These data show that achieving CFM25TOTAL=6% during production was generally correlated with achieving CFM25OUT=3% in mastic sealed systems, but less reliably with taped systems. Cost for achieving duct tightness goals range from $4 to $8 including duct testing on the assembly line
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-04-05-10.pdf (459.2Kb)
AC System Equipment Specification, Installation and Operational Options for Improved Indoor Humidity ControlShirey, D. B. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), December 2008)[more][less]
Abstract: High-efficiency home designs have significantly reduced sensible cooling loads, and some building codes and IAQ standards have begun requiring continuous outdoor ventilation air. These trends have led to an increased prevalence of high indoor humidity conditions (Rudd and Henderson 2007). This paper presents a summary of low-cost or no-cost equipment selection and operation options for conventional residential air-conditioning equipment that can result in lower indoor humidity levels. These options should be evaluated and employed to the extent possible prior to considering the added first cost and operating costs of separate dehumidification equipment.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-08-12-43.pdf (1.494Mb)
Krieg, B. L.; Baker, M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), May 1992)[more][less]
Abstract: Pacific Gas and Electric Company has initiated a major demonstration project to test the hypothesis that substantial energy efficiency improvements can be achieved in customer facilities at costs competitive with supply. This paper describes the initial pilot site design, focusing on how energy savings will be tracked and measured. The specific objective of the Advanced Customer Technology Test (ACT^2) for Maximum Energy Efficiency project is to provide scientific field test information, for use by PG&E and its customers, on the maximum energy savings possible, at or below projected competitive costs, by using modern high-efficiency end-use technologies in integrated packages acceptable to the customer. The project is a demand side demonstration analogous to a supply side demonstration, where near commercial advanced technologies are field-tested to determine actual economic and technical performance. PG&E has chosen a "Learn by Doing" approach in the development of the project design, technology design methods, and measurement and monitoring techniques. The project planning is being done in parallel to a "pilot demonstration", with the hope that our planning will be responsive to lessons learned in pilot demonstration. A design to maximize energy efficiency at the pilot demonstration site has been selected, and an energy monitoring system is being designed. The paper describes the pilot site design, the proposed monitoring system and the data processing and analysis system which will be used to collect and analyze the data.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-92-05-22.pdf (6.065Mb)
Novosel, D.; Griffiths, W. C. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1988)[more][less]
Abstract: High equipment first cost and high operating costs, if electricity is used to drive such a system, have prohibited the application of active humidity control equipment in comfort conditioning in the past. Instead, passive techniques have been applied. A comparison of passive capacity control methods to control humidity shows that only the combined face and bypass and variable air volume system shows improved performance with respect to space humidity control, dew point depression, and response to perturbations. A gas-fired desiccant humidity pump will provide economical humidity control in existing and new construction using VAV or constant volume air distribution systems. The humidity pump is designed as a packaged make-up air module. It is coupled to new or existing conventional air-conditioning system via a duct. It consists of a triple integrated heat-exchanger combining (liquid) desiccant dehumidification with indirect evaporative cooling, a brine interchanger, and a gas-fired brine heater to regenerate the desiccant. Field experiments of two humidity pumps on existing commercial buildings have been initiated. Each system dehumidifies 5000 scfm of make-up air to meet all the latent loads, which is then fed to conventional, electric-driven HVAC equipment which meet all the sensible loads.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-88-09-24.pdf (467.3Kb)
Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1996)[more][less]
Abstract: Heating penalty is expected when economizers are applied to dual-duct air handling systems. The heating penalty can even be higher than the cooling savings when the hot air flow is higher than the cold air flow. To avoid the excessive heating penalty, advanced economizers are developed in this paper. The application of the advanced economizer has resulted in $7,00O/yr savings in one 95,000 ft2 school building since 1993. The impacts of cold and hot deck settings on the energy consumption are also discussed.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-96-05-19.pdf (502.6Kb)
Ko, Y. J.; Charoensupaya, D.; Lavan, Z. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1989)[more][less]
Abstract: The concept of staged regeneration as means of improving the desiccant cooling system performance is the subject of investigation in this study. In the staged regeneration, the regeneration section of desiccant dehumidifier is divided into two parts and only the latter fraction is subjected to the desorption air stream which has been heated to the desired regeneration temperature. In the present work, the mathematical model describing the heat and mass transfer processes that occur during sorption of moisture in the desiccnnt dehumidifier includes both the gas-side (film) and solid-side resistances for heat and mass transports. The moisture diffusion in the desiccant material is expressed by gas-phase diffusion and surface diffusion. Effects of several parameters on the performance of desiccant cooling system with staged regeneration are investigated and the results of present model are compared with those of the lumped-resistance model. Results of this study show that coefficient of perfomnnce of the desiccant cooling system can be substantially improved by using the staged regeneration concept. There is an optimum stage fraction and optimum cycle time for given system parmeters and operating conditions. The results also indicate that the cooling system performance is higher than that predicted by the lumped-resistance model.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-89-10-07.pdf (545.5Kb)
Beckwith, W. R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1996)[more][less]
Abstract: High humidity can have a detrimental effect on many aspects of indoor environments. Building materials, books, and records deteriorate more rapidly in humidity levels above 60% due to biodegradation. High humidity increases electrical costs by reducing the temperature required for occupant comfort. Fungal growth in humidities above 70% can have many detrimental health effects, depending on the particular species encountered [5,1]. In fact, high humidity is often an underlying cause of many air quality disorders that result in indoor air quality (IAQ) problems.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-96-05-18.pdf (602.8Kb)
Ness, M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1998)[more][less]
Abstract: Although many architects and builders feel that designing for both sustainability and affordability is impossible, I believe that the only way we can afford to live is sustainably. Through the design of housing for artists, this thesis will demonstrate how a building can both meet the needs of its inhabitants and practice sustainable principles in a beautiful design. This Austin, Texas model can be used as a prototype for similar housing in other cities and for other environmentally friendly buildings. Sustainability is a crucial issue for the energy-guzzling United States. The Rocky Mountain Institute states that the biggest energy consumers in the US "are not cars, but homes. In 1990, for example, American households consumed $110 billion worth of energy." This project investigates means to design a building that uses as little energy as possible while maintaining a high quality of life. Austin is an ideal site because of its commitment to building sustainably, as established by the Austin Green Builder Program which "assists owners and designers to develop sustainable business practices" and offers an environmental rating system for residential construction. The Green Building Conference defines sustainability as, "products, systems, buildings, and land planning that create and promote an environment for healthy human living which can be sustained into the future-unpolluted by its waste or byproducts; thus, preserving and maintaining our natural resources for future generations." As an architecture student, I am intrigued by the issue of architecture as art. Looking beyond the narrow view of architecture as merely form manipulation to a broader base which considers the needs of the building's inhabitants and its impact on the earth, in addition to its form, is essential. As a former art major, I am interested in helping artists achieve a quality lifestyle by providing a space where they can afford to live and produce their art. The struggle for artists to earn a living is a common theme throughout the history of art. The shortage of affordable housing in American cities further contributes to their plight. My goal is to create housing that is efficient, less expensive to operate, and therefore, more affordable. This project studies different types of community living and precedents for both artist housing and affordable housing in the US. I will advance these models further in the direction of energy efficiency without sacrificing their beauty or socio-cultural significance in my design for a community of 16- 21 artists.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-98-06-03.pdf (1.041Mb)
Amarnath, A. (Energy Systems Laboratory, December 2008)[more][less]
Kempton, W.; Feuermann, D.; McGarity, A. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1987)[more][less]
Abstract: Air conditioner operation was studied in order to understand how energy consumption and peak power are determined by user behavior, equipment operation and building characteristics. In a multi-family building, thirteen room air conditioners were instrumented in eight apartments, and interviews were conducted with the residents about their operation of the units. The predominant mode of operation was to switch the unit on and off manually; only one resident consistently let it operate thermostatically, and many residents were not aware that the unit had a thermostat. Ambient temperature and time of day were observed to have major effects on the occupant's decision to turn the unit on or off. Even though residents did not pay for electricity, numerous noneconomic factors were found to limit their use of air conditioning. Across apartments, seasonal air conditioner energy consumption varies by two orders of magnitude while interior July temperature varies by 3.7°C.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-87-09-25.pdf (623.6Kb)
Hadley, D. L.; Bailey, S. A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1990)[more][less]
Abstract: During the 1989-1990 heating season, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, for the Bonneville Power Administration, measured the ventilation characteristics of 139 newly constructed energy-efficient manufactured homes and a control sample of 35 newer manufactured homes. A standard door fan pressurization technique was used to estimate shell leakiness, and a passive perfluorocarbon tracer technique was used to estimate overall air exchange rates. A measurement of the designated whole-house exhaust system flow rate was taken as well as an occupant and structure survey. The energy-efficient manufactured homes have very low air exchange rates, significantly lower than either existing manufactured homes or site-built homes. The standard deviation of the effective leakage area for this sample of homes is small (25% to 30% of the mean), indicating that the leakiness of manufactured housing stock can be confidently characterized by the mean value. There is some indication of increased ventilation due to the energy-efficient whole-house ventilation specification, but not directly related to the operation of the wholehouse system. The mechanical systems as installed and operated do not provide the intended ventilation; consequently indoor air quality could possibly be adversely impacted and moisture/condensation in the living space is a potential problem.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-90-10-17.pdf (448.9Kb)
Zhou, J.; Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory, December 2008)[more][less]
Abstract: Air-side economizer is broadly adopted in building HVAC design and operations. When the system is properly designed and the control sequence is properly implemented, air-side economizer provides significant energy savings. The design and operation basics of the air-side economizer are well understood and documented. However, some confusion and misconceptions do exist and are widely spread. When the economizer is not designed or implemented properly, an air handler cannot take full advantage of "free cooling", and, in some cases, could even cause significant energy waste. This paper first introduces the fundamentals of the airside economizer and typical control sequences. It goes on to discuss the determination of the activation temperature that enables or disables the dry-bulb temperature based economizer operation. The “best” activation temperatures that maximize the energy savings can be calculated based on weather data and are different from location to location. Activation temperatures for a few representative cities are presented. For drier weather regions, the activation temperatures are significantly higher than those for hot and humid weather regions. The second part of the paper discusses the benefits of the enthalpy-enabled economizer and points out some important misconceptions that could significantly impact the energy savings of economizer operation. Specifically, it challenges the simplistic control strategy for the enthalpy based economizer control that is commonly used in the industry. Some questions this paper tries to answer include: 1. What is the optimal activation temperature for a temperature-based economizer that provides the most energy savings? 2. How does enthalpy-based economizer compare with temperature-based economizer in energy savings? 3. Does an economizer always save energy when the outside air enthalpy is below the return air enthalpy? 4. Is it necessary for the outside air enthalpy to be lower than the return air enthalpy to enable the economizer and save energy? 5. What happens if the economizer control fails? What are the potential penalties? Finally, an optimized economizer control strategy is proposed which is easy to implement and produces greater energy savings than both the temperature and conventional enthalpy based strategies.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-08-12-13.pdf (3.607Mb)
Wallace, M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1996)[more][less]
Abstract: Carter & Burgess first began using triple deck multi-zone units, in place of traditional VAV systems, on the Texas State Capitol restoration. Since the completion of that project design in early 1991, our firm has now used triple deck multi-zone units in the Harris County Criminal Courts Building in Houston, one of the most hot and humid climates in the United States, as well as in several other facilities. This paper will discuss the adoption of ASHRAE 62, its effects on VAV systems, and how triple deck multi-zone units offer an alternative system to cooling in hot and humid climates. We recommend all design firms add triple deck multizone units to their repertoire of design solutions.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-96-05-02.pdf (423.7Kb)
Bivens, D. B. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1996)[more][less]
Abstract: The majority of building air conditioning has traditionally been achieved with vapor compression technology using CFC-I I or HCFC-22 as refrigerant fluids. CFC-11 is being successfully replaced by HCFC-123 (retrofit or new equipment) or by HFC- 134a (new equipment), but HCFC-123 is scheduled for phase-out longer term by provisions of the Montreal Protocol and the United States Clean Air Act. . Performance and environmental properties are presented for CFC-1 I alternatives HCFC-123, HFC- 134a, and HFC-245ca. HCFC-22 is also scheduled for phase-out, and three alternatives for HCFC-22 have been identified: HFC-134a, a near-azeotropic mixture of R32/Rl25, and a zeotropic mixture of R32/R125/R134a. Performance test results, future potential energy efficiencies, and environmental properties are presented for these alternative refrigerants.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-96-05-34.pdf (514.9Kb)
Lindsay, B. B.; Koplow, M. D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1988)[more][less]
Abstract: The rapid escalation of electricity prices has created an opportunity to re-introduce gas-fired air conditioning systems to the commercial building market. In 1985 Gas Research Institute initiated a program to develop an advanced gas engine-driven water chiller. The packaged system has been designed, fabricated and tested. A field experiment unit has been operating since August, 1986, and seven field test units have been operating since April, 1987. The performance of the system has been outstanding. The system should be an economically attractive alternative to electrically-driven chillers in most of the United States.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-88-09-23.pdf (501.1Kb)
Levin, C.; Simmonds, P. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1996)[more][less]
Abstract: A 625,600 ft2 (58,120 m2) office building with retail in South Korea has a total cooling load of 3,330 tons refrigeration (1 1,7 12 kW). In order to evaluate the most economical manner to provide cooling, a simulation program was used. Five different configurations of chiller plants were investigated; each configuration was carefully described so that the computer model was a good representation of the intended plants. This paper outlines the design and analysis procedure, and the results show the difference in energy consumption between the configurations.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-96-05-28.pdf (492.6Kb)
Dinka, M.; Cho, S. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), August 2010)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper presents sustainable strategies for the design of a prototype sustainable housing complex in tropical climate that applies specifically to Haiti. The tropical climate zone is hot and humid with abundant rainfall and luxuriant vegetation growth. Despite its beautiful environment most of the countries in this zone are undeveloped and poverty manifests itself in different faces especially in poor housing condition. In this study, the history, geography, and culture of Haiti are analyzed in the context of family unit, community, and economic aspects. The climate conditions are also investigated in the context of residents’ comfort and energy savings. The construction materials appropriate for Haiti climate are explored. Rainwater harvesting and gray water reuses are discussed. Finally, sustainable design principles are proposed. Sustainable housing design refers to a strategy to plan and build a housing complex that uses efficient energy and water management while minimizing the overall adverse health and environmental problems. This means keeping the conventional comfort and environment conditions in housing by using natural sources of energy, like sun and wind, to provide natural heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, and water management while contributing to a responsible natural resources use. The proposed guiding principles target to be utilized for the design of sustainable housing complex in Haiti located in a tropical climate.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-10-08-03.pdf (2.335Mb)