Browsing Energy Systems Laboratory by Issue Date
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Guzick, L. L. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Originally the Drain Orifice Assembly was developed to solve serious steam trap maintenance problems in Navy ship's high pressure systems. Installation was between two ANSI B16.5 Flanges. The high pressure systems operate at pressures between 150 psig and 1200 psig. Based on the initial test results, a program was adopted by the U.S. Navy to replace all conventional steam traps with the Drain Orifice in all high pressure drain systems on ships in the U.S. Fleet.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-38.pdf (2.084Mb)
Yates, W. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: In the late 60's and early 70's oil was plentiful and steam was relatively inexpensive. The switch to low sulphur fuel oil and the oil embargo suddenly changed the picture. The cost of steam rose from about $0.50 per 1,000# to $3.00 or more. Many see costs of $5.00 per 1,000# by 1980. These tremendous increases have caused steam systems, steam traps and condensate systems to become a major factor in overall plant efficiency and profit.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-37.pdf (995.1Kb)
Crump, J. R.; Prengle, H. W., Jr. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper presents methods which can be used to determine heater and boiler performance from operating data. A study is presented delineating the variation of combustion efficiency with load, excess air, and stack and wall losses. The results indicate that over an operating range of 25-100% of maximum load, combustion efficiency values lie within a band of 1.5%. A preliminary efficiency function can be obtained from one operating point and two calculated points. As excess air is increased the inside wall temperature and wall loss decrease, but the stack temperature increases and the efficiency decreases. The methodology is applied to eight operating cases, ranging from 50 to 100 million BTU/hr; and include gas, oil, and coal fired units, currently in service in petrochemical plants, refineries and an electric utility plant. The individual analyses lead to the following conclusions: The figure of 92% as a practical upper limit to efficiency is strongly confirmed; substantial improvements in combustion efficiency is strongly confirmed; substantial improvements in combustion efficiency can be attained, up to the range of 87% to 92%; where earlier retrofit has already been accomplished, 87% may be the economic upper limit.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-47.pdf (1.768Mb)
Thekdi, A. C.; Hemsath, K. H. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: U.S. industry consumes approximately 40 percent of all fuel consumed by the nation. The majority of this fuel is used to generate heat for elevating temperatures of materials. The heat is generated by combustion of the major fuels such as natural gas, fuel oil and coal. The combustion process itself and the utilization of heat generated by combustion has been carried out rather inefficiently. In the past, combustion equipment, primarily burners, were designed and operated with very little attention to the amount of heat wasted during their operation. The burners were considered a necessity, but their full potential in improving thermal efficiency of the heating process was very rarely used. Most of the burners used a varying amount of excess air. The air-fuel ratio control was primarily left to the operator and the flame shape and momentum were rarely considered as a design factor for the heating equipment. In the last few years, heating equipment designers and suppliers have realized the importance of efficient burner operation. Midland-Ross and other burner manufacturers have, during this time, developed a large variety of special burners and associated equipment to allow the use of efficient combustion of fossil fuels. In addition to proper air-fuel ratio, the burners are capable of operating with preheated air or oxygen enriched air to recover and reduce the flue gas heat. Certain specially designed burners improve heat transfer to the work load by discharging high velocity gases into the furnace. This paper describes various types of burners, their applications, and field test results which illustrate that a properly designed and applied combustion system can reduce the energy consumption and improve the productivity by reducing the process heating time.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-48.pdf (1.980Mb)
Boyd, M. P. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Deere & Company appreciates the opportunity to discuss energy management and conservation with you. Energy is a topic that will occupy our thoughts for many years to come and certainly will be in the forefront in the near future. It is a subject that has become increasingly complex. Fuel availability is a fluctuating phenomenon. Technology to enable energy conservation and to supply efficient alternate non-depleting sources is complex. Government intervention is becoming increasingly pervasive in energy management. National and certainly industrial responsibilities in wise energy management is a commitment. But it is difficult to determine how one finds a reasonable path to energy security.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-64.pdf (1.111Mb)
Shah, G. C. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: A majority of the energy conservation programs in the chemical process industry aims at gaining cooperation and motivation from the operators or technicians. These programs are useful but they seem to lack an important aspect: "Operator training in the energy conservation techniques." The purpose of this presentation is to outline general guidelines for this training. Out of the many energy-intensive operations, two are presented as an example - viz. distillation and furnaces. This type of training should be an integral part of an overall energy management program in a plant. Efficient operation of the process equipment is a key to energy conservation. In a process plant, majority of energy consumption is taken up by operation of the plant. Although we all are involved in conservation efforts, it is the operators, who directly affect the energy savings. It is therefore reasonably obvious that these individuals should be adequately trained in "the techniques of energy conservation". By making operator training an integral part of a conservation program, the effectiveness (and efficiency too) of the program can be considerably improved.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-79.pdf (817.0Kb)
Page, J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: In the past, refineries and petrochemical plants have emphasized the need to prevent and minimize major hydrocarbon releases to the flare. Although these are given a great deal of attention, the normal daily hydrocarbon losses to the flare seldom merit consideration because the losses and associated economic penalties are assumed to be small. Flare gas flow is not easily measured and as a result, most plants are unaware of how much product they are actually losing during normal operation. This report will discuss a tracer technique used to accurately measure flare losses. Plants can use several methods to reduce hydrocarbon losses during normal operation. The following three are primarily used: 1) monitor the flare system and take corrective action to minimize hydrocarbon releases, 2) install flare gas recovery systems, and 3) recover or reduce process streams which have to be continuous1y vented to the flare system. This report discusses alternate designs for flare gas monitoring and flare gas recovery systems and also presents several case studies.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-89.pdf (1.095Mb)
Rose, R. K.; Colosimo, D. D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Under a cooperatively funded DOE/MTI program, a packaged organic Rankine power recovery system is being developed specifically to meet the needs of the petroleum refining and chemical industries. Program objectives include an actual in-plant demonstration in a process application. This paper will describe this program, the organic Rankine package, and the economics of its application in the petro-chemical process industry. Utilization of waste heat flows in the process industry has always been considered to the limits of economic feasibility. However, both economic and technical feasibility limit the use of waste heat flows with conventional approaches in the 250 F to 350 F range. A packaged organic Rankine power cycle can technically and economically convert this type of heat flow into useful power. The system under development by MTI is one based on a conventional fluorocarbon refrigerant to generate a nominal 1000 kW from typical liquid and vapor streams in the process plant. The 220 F nominal turbine inlet temperature of the unit is well suited to the 250 F to 350 F typical of these streams. The organic Rankine power package will be in operation at MTI's Energy Test Facility in late 1979. The first field test demonstration unit is scheduled to be shipped in late 1980.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-107.pdf (1.756Mb)
Edgar, T. F. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: The necessity of providing clean, combustible fuels for use in Gulf Coast industries is well established; one possible source of such a fuel is to perform in situ gasification of Texas lignite which lies below stripping depths. If oxygen (rather than air) is used for gasification, the resulting medium Btu gas could be economically transported by pipeline from the gasification sites to the Gulf coast. Technical, environmental, and economic aspects of implementing this technology are discussed.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-13.pdf (1.852Mb)
Kleeman, L. A.; Mewhinney, T. R.; Proctor, S. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Several years ago, J T Thorpe Company embarked on a search for the ideal refractory lining. The primary design consideration was the development of a refractory lining system that was cost effective, met furnace design conditions (cold face temperature, heat loss, velocity, etc.), and was free of operation failures. These efforts produced the Z-BLOK* Module Refractory Fiber Lining, which was first installed in an operating furnace in April, 1975. After obtaining a patent for this unique modular refractory lining system, Thorpe transferred the patents to Johns-Manville and became the Johns-Manville licensed distributor/fabricator for the Southwest area.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-118.pdf (1.532Mb)
Mordt, E. H. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Liquid phase heating systems involve sensible heat transfer in a closed loop wherein a pumped fluid's temperature is raised in a heater, then lowered in a heat user and returned for reheating. No formation and condensation of vapor occurs. High Temperature Water (HTW) central district heating systems are far superior to steam systems in large, spread out installations such as airports, universities and office complexes. Water, pressurized to keep it in the liquid state, is distributed at 400oF and returned at 250oF. Fuel savings due to elimination of steam cycle losses are surprisingly large. HTW reduces distribution costs, eliminates corrosion and lowers maintenance. For temperatures much above 400oF, the pressure in a steam or water system becomes excessive. Here, the High Temperature/Low Pressure (HT/LP) organic thermal liquids are applicable. The higher the temperature, the greater the potential fuel savings over a conventional steam system. Less expensive low pressure heat users may be used. Water treatment, corrosion, freeze-up hazard, and blow down cooling and disposal problems are eliminated. Operating engineers are not required in many parts of the country for these safe, low pressure systems. HT/LP fluids have some drawbacks. They will degrade if overheated and will oxidize at elevated temperatures. They are flammable, difficult to contain and are somewhat costly. Most of them are toxic, and some of them have acute unpleasant odors. However, for most applications, their benefits far outweigh their shortcomings. Liquid phase heating systems have much to offer in initial, operating and maintenance cost reductions. Most important, they can significantly aid in our energy conservation efforts. Consider them for your next application.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-29.pdf (1.783Mb)
Pope, M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: A new combustion technology has been developed in the last decade that permits the burning of low quality coal, lignite and other fuels, while maintaining stack emissions within State and Federal EPA limits. Low quality fuels can be burned directly in fluidized beds while taking advantage of low furnace temperatures and chemical activity within the bed to limit SO2 and NOx emissions, thereby eliminating the need for stack gas scrubbing equipment. The excellent heat transfer characteristics of the fluidized beds also result in a reduction of total heat transfer surface requirements, thus reducing the size and cost of steam generators. Tests on beds operating at pressures of one to ten atmospheres, at temperatures as high as 1600oF, and with gas velocities in the vicinity of four to twelve feet per second, have proven the concept. Early history of this technology is traced, and the progress that has been made in the development of fluidized bed combustion boilers, as well as work currently underway, in the United States and overseas, is reviewed. Details on the fluidized bed boiler installations at Alexandria, Virginia (5,000 lbs/hr), Georgetown University (100,000 lbs/hr), and Rivesville, West Virginia (300,000 Ibs/hr) are presented, and test results are discussed. Potential application of fluidized bed boilers in industrial plants using lignite and lignite refuse is examined. The impact of proposed new DOE and EPA regulations on solid fuels burning is also examined.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-23.pdf (1.791Mb)
Dukelow, S. G. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Steam boilers and process heaters are the two primary combustion processes in petrochemical and petroleum refining plants. There are key differences in the evolution of these processes which resulted from the historical cost of fuel per unit of product. Relating to the burning of the fuel and the heat transfer to the working fluids, which have shaped process equipment for both types of processes. Our economic environment is changing because of the rising cost of fuel and process equipment, including instrumentation and controls. This provides an incentive for improving existing installations, especially for process heaters as compared to boilers. Control systems which optimize combustion air while improving other performance attributes of process heaters are excellent prospects for investment. The lack of sophisticated conventional process heater control systems and fuel burning equipment correlates with the previous low cost of fuel. Deficiencies of simpler systems can be identified in coping with the operation environment and how this effects operation results and fuel economy. For many existing heater installations, satisfying process and fuel supply environment needs requires improved control strategies. To successfully implement these strategies, the limitations affecting their use and problems of implementation must be understood. Forced and induced draft provides an additional opportunity for control improvement. This brings combustion control and safety constraints for heaters closer to that of steam boilers. Process heater simulation can demonstrate the resulting improved performance.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-20.pdf (1.956Mb)
Fishel, F. D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper investigates the energy savings available by utilizing variable speed motors on pump and fan applications. Conventional control of flow or pressure in process plants is normally accomplished by throttling the various streams with control valves. Depending on the system and the actual operating conditions, this throttling may consume a considerable amount of energy. The hydraulics of different systems are investigated to generalize high energy saving applications. Typical pump characteristics at varying speeds are investigated since most performance curves are only available at a constant speed. The various types of variable speed electric motors are discussed. However, the primary variable speed system recommended is a variable frequency speed system which utilizes standard induction motors. Specific cases of centrifugal pump applications and cooling tower fan service are presented. Turndown frequencies, stream factors, and electric rates are included in the evaluation. The energy savings of a variable speed system becomes significant when flow rates vary widely and the electrical rates are high.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-31.pdf (2.020Mb)
Hart, M. N.; Bond, S. K. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Experience in executing comprehensive energy audits in varied industrial plants has resulted in a basic audit methodology and has revealed several interesting energy conservation opportunities applicable to paper products manufacturing. The most difficult and important part of an energy audit is the data collection that is necessary to fully understand the energy flows in the facility. Although many common opportunities exist that can be found in check lists, many opportunities are discovered only by a thorough understanding of the distribution of energy consumption that comes from detailed measurements and data analysis.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-26.pdf (1.968Mb)
Urbas, J. C. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: The paper making recipe calls for heavy helpings of natural resources such as air, water, fiber and combustibles. Economic stresses have already trimmed most ingredients, but papermaking can still be considered as an energy sponge using the equivalent of 3 to 5 barrels (more than one half ton of oil) per ton of product. There is no question that our processes are now burdened with heavy energy penalties and eventually at least one barrel will be deleted from our established processing habits. Meeting this new level is easy in new mills, but reaching these targets in all mills will not be easy and should not be expected to happen over-night. Everyone knows that conservation progress has been slow and probably one of the main reasons has been the lack of man hours. Process revisions and retrofitting are time consuming and labor intensive, and this part of the papermaking recipe must be adjusted accordingly if conservation is to accelerate. The text of the paper cites existing energy levels in three different types of paper mills, along with targets for the future. Suggestions are offered on how these targets can be met, as well as the priority areas which will give the best R.O.I. and least risk.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-28.pdf (1.558Mb)
Pelletier, H. N.; Guinan, R. L. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: The major theme of this paper is to emphasize the need and identify the measures necessary to maintain boiler or heater tube surfaces in a reasonably clean condition in order to attain the maximum possible overall system efficiency. Many factors, including some commonly overlooked, must be considered in arriving at an effective and adequate cleaning system. Also to be covered is a review of the wide variety of available soot blowers. These vary according to the type of surface arrangement that is to be cleaned and the energy level that is necessary to effectively remove the deposits involved. Attention is also given to the various control systems required and available for the soot blower according to sequence versatility and blowing interval variability. Finally, the "payback" from soot blowing is a matter of comparing the costs connected with soot blowing and the gain in boiler efficiency. The costs normally associated with soot blowers are capital investment, maintenance, and blowing medium consumed. But savings can be realized without a decrease in blowing effectiveness, for example, by increasing blower travel speeds, reducing blowing cycle time, and updating older equipment. Payback can also be measured in terms of reduced boiler exit gas temperature and the resultant gain in boiler efficiency.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-22.pdf (1.640Mb)
Walker, P. J.; Erskine, K. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Pulp and paper mills are one of the major industrial consumers of energy, a great deal of which is wasted, misused or recoverable. An "energy audit" is conducted on a typical fine paper mill, a step-by-step program is followed which reveals their startling waste of energy, the corrective measures taken to reduce this waste of energy, the potential for waste recovery and equipment available for waste heat recovery. Areas under study include the press section, paper machine dryer section, and machine room air and water handling systems. Emphasis must be placed on the need for total commitment by management and production towards the goal of substantial reduction in consumed energy.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-27.pdf (1.641Mb)
Goodman, M. A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: The use of high frequency or ultrasonic vibrations transmitted into and through a suitable medium can increase solution effectiveness. This means that in a continuous cleaning process, ultrasonic activation of the cleaning solution can increase productivity without increasing the energy requirement. Basic principles of ultrasonic activation will be discussed with attention paid to the energy saving aspects.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-30.pdf (1.166Mb)
Bywaters, R. P. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: High quality energy exhaust streams from U. S. industrial plants are estimated to have an energy equivalent of 2 to 3 million barrels of oil equivalent per day, or about 15% of total industrial energy consumption. The value of energy contained in these high-quality waste heat streams, at today's oil prices, is approximately 12 billion dollars per year. Heat recovery is perhaps one of the largest energy conservation opportunities available to U. S. industries today. The author reviews basic heat recovery design considerations as well as a summary of typical "waste heat" sources and application sites. A procedure for conducting industrial waste heat surveys is presented. Thermodynamic and heat transfer factors are discussed. Problems associated with matching sources to application sites are considered and trade-offs between mode of operation, pressure drop, maintenance, efficiency, and life-cycle costs are reviewed.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-06.pdf (1.717Mb)