Browsing Conference Proceedings by Title
AC System Equipment Specification, Installation and Operational Options for Improved Indoor Humidity ControlShirey, D. B. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), December 2008)[more][less]
Abstract: High-efficiency home designs have significantly reduced sensible cooling loads, and some building codes and IAQ standards have begun requiring continuous outdoor ventilation air. These trends have led to an increased prevalence of high indoor humidity conditions (Rudd and Henderson 2007). This paper presents a summary of low-cost or no-cost equipment selection and operation options for conventional residential air-conditioning equipment that can result in lower indoor humidity levels. These options should be evaluated and employed to the extent possible prior to considering the added first cost and operating costs of separate dehumidification equipment.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-08-12-43.pdf (1.494Mb)
Claridge, D. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2001)[more][less]
Abstract: The occupancy factor is often underestimated in inverse modeling of building energy use, or accounted for by grouping the daily data in occupied and unoccupied groups which are modeled separately. For instance, in institutional buildings it is common to identify "weekdays/weekends", "semester breaks", and "holidays" daytypes. In order to develop one model that accounts for all periods, i.e., occupied and unoccupied, at an hourly time scale, a dummy variable (regressor) can be used. The dummy variable is often used in a simplified way; for instance, having a value of 0 between 8:00 AM and 5:00 PM, and 1 between 5:00 PM and 8:00 AM, for an office building. In this paper, the effect of using different alternatives in accounting for the occupancy variable in inverse modeling of building energy use is investigated, and the resulting uncertainty in the predictions, using the SMLP inverse method are presented.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IC-01-07-29.pdf (559.7Kb)
Grant, G. H. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), June 1986)[more][less]
Abstract: Energy management is dependent on the ability to accurately measure all energy sources so controls can take place. A survey fifteen years ago in Great Britian showed that the primary elements used for flow measurement of steam and gases were square law devices, with limited turndown and high sensitivity to velocity profile. This showed the need for a primary device able to give accurate readings over a wide turndown; long life handling hostile fluids; presenting the fewest possible installation problems. A variable differential pressure device producing a differential directly proportional to flow rate is the result.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-86-06-99.pdf (979.3Kb)
Hosseini, S.; Rusnak, J. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1987)[more][less]
Abstract: Heat flow measurement is a complex and sensitive discipline. It requires a thorough understanding of the available technology as well as a practical knowledge of the process and the fluid being measured. Accurate heat flow measurement is often an important criterion in facilities that distribute thermal energy. This paper describes the concepts and principles involved in achieving accurate measurements of heat flow.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-87-09-32.pdf (1.166Mb)
Achieving A Long Term Business Impact by Improving the Energy Effectiveness and Reliability of Electric MotorsWhelan, C. D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1997)[more][less]
Abstract: Over 100,000 electric motors drive the production equipment throughout a large chemical company. The energy-efficiency and reliability of these motors during their entire life have a decided impact on the company's manufacturing costs and production capability. The Corporate Motor Technology Team (CMTT) conceived and led a program to optimize the cost effectiveness and reliability of new motors and developed criteria to determine whether to repair or replace motors that fail. The higher energy efficiency of the electric motors offered by vendors today plays a crucial role in these decisions. The company's current motor specification, procurement, maintenance, repair and replacement practices are vastly improved and consistent across the corporation. The 1995 savings attributed to the higher energy efficiency of over 2000 motors installed the prior year amount to $570,000 and will continue to accrue year after year. So will the savings stemming from lower maintenance cost and reduced downtime.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-97-04-10.pdf (2.492Mb)
McIlvaine, J.; Beal, D.; Moyer, N.; Chasar, D.; Chandra, S. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2004)[more][less]
Abstract: This Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) study, conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP), compares mastic sealed duct systems to tape sealed systems by showing measured total duct leakage (CFM25TOTAL and QnTOTAL) and/or measured leakage to the outside (CFM25OUT and QnOUT) in 190 manufactured home floors or home sections. All manufacturers were considering or actively working toward achieving duct leakage below 3% of the conditioned floor area (QnOUT=0.03), consistent with Energy Star Manufactured Homes criteria. Previous field tests suggest that CFM25OUT accounts for about half of CFM25TOTAL. These data show that achieving CFM25TOTAL=6% during production was generally correlated with achieving CFM25OUT=3% in mastic sealed systems, but less reliably with taped systems. Cost for achieving duct tightness goals range from $4 to $8 including duct testing on the assembly line
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-04-05-10.pdf (459.2Kb)
Chen, H.; Deng, S.; Bruner, H. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2003)[more][less]
Abstract: The Continuous Commissioning (CCSM) process has become a very important energy conservation topic for new and existing commercial buildings. This process can yield substantial operating savings, improved indoor air quality, and enhanced occupant comfort. It also provides solutions to reoccurring building maintenance problems. One tool that can be implemented during commissioning work is a nearoptimal global set point method in an Energy Management Control System (EMCS) Direct Digital Controller (DDC). This algorithm is based on mathematical models for the chillers, boilers, chilled and hot water pumps, and air handler fans that relate the power of these components as a function of the chilled water and hot water differential temperature. The algorithm will minimize the total plant power consumption. These optimal control strategies make the CC process more effective. The Texas A&M University Systems State Headquarters is an office building, with a total floor area of approximately 123,960 ft2. An integrated commissioning of the HVAC systems was performed for this building. This paper describes the commissioning activities and demonstrates how newly developed optimized control strategies improved the building comfort conditions and reduced utility costs during and after the commissioning period.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IC-03-10-08.pdf (905.6Kb)
Kraly, K. F. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1999)[more][less]
Abstract: Cosmair's Clark Manufacturing Facility joined the Climate Wise program, a voluntary industrial energy efficiency program sponsored by the US EPA, to support its commitment to energy conservation excellence and total environmental awareness, while emphasizing strong quality programs and improved productivity. A comprehensive energy efficiency and pollution prevention program undertaken over the past decade, including boiler updates, computerized energy management, solid waste minimization, lighting improvements, and motor efficiency gains, is anticipated to save Cosmair almost $2.5 million and prevent 26.7 thousand metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions by the year 2000. Cosmair has worked to share its experiences through the facilitation of peer exchange endeavors, encouragement of affiliated companies to commit to carbon emission reductions through the Climate Wise program, and extensive involvement in community outreach activities.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-99-05-14.pdf (2.373Mb)
Weisenthal, M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1981)[more][less]
Abstract: You're all here because energy conservation has become a major concern for your companies. You're here to be better informed on the options available to you through new concepts and techniques useful in reducing the amount of energy it takes to produce your products. This paper is presents to help you present your program of energy conservation to all of your company employees, so they too will be able to become involved in doing something about utilizing energy more effectively. This paper is to show you how you can create an awareness program concerning your energy needs, that will get through to your employees and encourage more positive participation on their part.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-81-04-43.pdf (1.176Mb)
Ardren, C.; Bannister, P. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2012)[more][less]
Abstract: The extensively refurbished heritage government department office building in Canberra's Parliamentary circle, has managed to achieve its target energy performance levels contrary to expectations following difficult design and construction processes, through careful and thorough commissioning and tuning. The existing two storey 5,000m2 sandstone building was completely gutted and brought to a new life as a head office for one of Australia's federal government departments. The building was stripped back to a bare shell, before being re-created to a Grade A office with numerous tenant systems, including a 125kW data centre with a series of complex multi-layered alarm and protection systems. Given the extent of incomplete or contradictory designs, the commissioning team needed to carry out substantial planning, coordination and framing of test scenarios in order to bring all issues to a close, all the while being cognisant of the final desired energy performance outcome and close scrutiny by the Tenant representative of all commissioning planning and witness testing. This paper presents an overview of the challenges that needed to resolved during the course of the commissioning and tuning processes to achieve/maintain the target energy performance outcome (4.5 Stars NABERS - approximately 70-75kg/CO2e/m2/year) after 12 months of occupation and operation. In order to aid understanding, we have assessed the procedures and steps taken against the Soft landings guidelines and core principles.
Files in this item: 2ESL-IC-12-10-31.pdf (1.264Mb)(more files)
Wang, Z.; Wang, G.; Xu, K.; Yu, Y.; Liu, M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2007)[more][less]
Abstract: Typically a blending station is designed to ensure that its user is able to avoid low chilled water return temperature in the district cooling system. When the chilled water return temperature drops to a low limit, building return water is blended into building supply water to reduce primary chilled water flow and finally increase building chilled water return. However, the blending station will cause extra pump power and may cause humidity and temperature issues. Theoretical analysis has been conducted on the blending station performance. The results show that the blending station is not necessary in the building chilled water systems with 2-way modulation valves at end users. Actually the end user valve configuration and control mainly impacts building chilled water temperature. As soon as the water flow control is improved, the chilled water return temperature can be controlled without the blending stations. This paper presents actual system operation data and optimal control measures at three buildings which receive chilled water from a district cooling system.
Files in this item: 2ESL-IC-07-11-26.pdf (280.9Kb)(more files)
Ferland, K. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2010)[more][less]
Abstract: Ms. Ferland will be presenting the plant energy-efficiency certification program developed by the US Council for Energy Efficiency Manufacturing over the last two years. The foundation of the program is the proposed ISO 50001 standard on energy management. Superior Energy Performance combines an outcome based approach (energy intensity improvement) with a commitment to continual improvement (conformance with the ISO standard). The program is now in the demonstration phase in a number of states.
Files in this item: 2ESL-IE-10-05-23.pdf (471.6Kb)(more files)
Scheihing, P. (Energy Systems Laboratory, May 2009)[more][less]
Abstract: U.S. industry has the capacity to significantly improve its overall energy performance and help meet both private-sector and national goals for energy and the environment. TheUS Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) is partnering with industry to drive a 25% reduction in industrial energy intensity by 2017—and also contribute to an 18% reduction in carbon intensity economy-wide by 2012. To expedite progress in achieving these targets, ITP and industry are collaborating with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), non-profits, USEPA and NIST to facilitate the development of energy management standards and certification for manufacturing plants. The paper will describe the program criteria and opportunities for participation in the future.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-09-05-01.pdf (238.8Kb)
Subramanya, S. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2010)[more][less]
Abstract: After years of attempting to streamline operations in an effort to reduce operational costs, many industrial manufacturers are turning to strategic energy management as a potential money-saving strategy. In their efforts, managers face a number of significant barriers such as low awareness and expertise, elevated financial hurdle rate, lack of capital allocation and procurement constraints. In addition, energy efficiency efforts may be hampered by traditional single point energy reduction methods such as reviewing utility bills, getting equipment upgrade suggestions from vendors or one-time energy audits. Research demonstrates that these techniques have neither the visibility nor continuity to achieve energy reductions that are consistent and persistent. With the right Best Practices, however, using new methodologies and technologies unavailable only a few years ago, enterprises can achieve dramatic energy reductions and their resulting cost savings. These Best Practices are founded on 1) application of a systematic methodology for understanding where energy is used and how to reduce it; and 2) achieving visibility into sufficiently granular real-time information on key performance indicators; 3) integrating new technology into overall corporate strategy and processes to change behavior.
Files in this item: 2ESL-IE-10-05-19.pdf (1.828Mb)(more files)
Fisher, D.; Bristow, G. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), November 2009)[more][less]
Abstract: Sustainability, energy savings, and occupant comfort are not mutually exclusive objectives, as buildings can be designed that incorporate all of these features. Sustainability is often defined as meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to do the same. Reducing the demand for energy produced from depletable resources and generating energy from renewable sources leaves more resources available for future use. Therefore, energy savings and sustainability go hand in hand. Occupant comfort can be maintained in conjunction with energy savings, and some sustainable practices enhance comfort. Properly planned and implemented construction programs can help ensure efficiently operating systems, reducing the consumption of valuable resources, while providing an acceptable indoor environment. The authors have more than 30 years combined experience working with Texas schools in mechanical, electrical, and plumbing engineering and design as well as energy management.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IC-09-11-33.pdf (312.7Kb)
Niksa, M. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), April 1992)[more][less]
Abstract: Large amounts of sodium sulfate are produced as a by-product of many diverse industries. Some of this material is recycled internally. Some is upgraded and sold as a product. Most is disposed of as waste in landfills, or discharged to deep-wells, or bodies of water. Electrolytic regeneration of by-product sodium sulfate can profitably exploit this valuable internal resource. ELTECH has a proven record in the development of long-life anodes for use in acid sulfate solutions, and in providing high performance electrolytic generators.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-92-04-28.pdf (2.904Mb)
Evans, J. B.; Himmel, C. N. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), November 2009)[more][less]
Abstract: Noise, vibration and acoustical design, construction, commissioning and operation practices influence building cost, efficiency, performance and effectiveness. Parameters for structural vibration, building systems noise, acoustics and environmental noise crossing property boundaries will be presented with brief case studies illustrating noise and vibration problems with successful solutions. Building mechanical, power, and plumbing systems contribute to building operations noise and vibration, which affects building occupants, sensitive installations, and functional uses. Various noise and vibration design criteria, field measurements, design concepts and specifications can be applied in facilities to achieve noise mitigation and vibration control to enhance building operations and reduce tenant or neighbor problems. Concepts for enhancement will be presented that achieve specific program criteria and improve the built environment for occupants and functional uses, including items to incorporate in specifications and construction documents. Concepts relating to noise and vibration control can also reduce short and long-term operations costs and save energy. Acoustical designs can be implemented in new construction to achieve specific requirements for LEED certification in healthcare and educational facilities. Common problems, objective criteria, sensitive installations, and solutions will be presented to offer a basic understanding of effective noise and vibration control for central plant equipment, power systems, transformers, standby generators, and roof mounted HVAC equipment.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IC-09-11-30.pdf (2.670Mb)
Krieg, B. L.; Baker, M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), May 1992)[more][less]
Abstract: Pacific Gas and Electric Company has initiated a major demonstration project to test the hypothesis that substantial energy efficiency improvements can be achieved in customer facilities at costs competitive with supply. This paper describes the initial pilot site design, focusing on how energy savings will be tracked and measured. The specific objective of the Advanced Customer Technology Test (ACT^2) for Maximum Energy Efficiency project is to provide scientific field test information, for use by PG&E and its customers, on the maximum energy savings possible, at or below projected competitive costs, by using modern high-efficiency end-use technologies in integrated packages acceptable to the customer. The project is a demand side demonstration analogous to a supply side demonstration, where near commercial advanced technologies are field-tested to determine actual economic and technical performance. PG&E has chosen a "Learn by Doing" approach in the development of the project design, technology design methods, and measurement and monitoring techniques. The project planning is being done in parallel to a "pilot demonstration", with the hope that our planning will be responsive to lessons learned in pilot demonstration. A design to maximize energy efficiency at the pilot demonstration site has been selected, and an energy monitoring system is being designed. The paper describes the pilot site design, the proposed monitoring system and the data processing and analysis system which will be used to collect and analyze the data.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-92-05-22.pdf (6.065Mb)
Novosel, D.; Griffiths, W. C. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1988)[more][less]
Abstract: High equipment first cost and high operating costs, if electricity is used to drive such a system, have prohibited the application of active humidity control equipment in comfort conditioning in the past. Instead, passive techniques have been applied. A comparison of passive capacity control methods to control humidity shows that only the combined face and bypass and variable air volume system shows improved performance with respect to space humidity control, dew point depression, and response to perturbations. A gas-fired desiccant humidity pump will provide economical humidity control in existing and new construction using VAV or constant volume air distribution systems. The humidity pump is designed as a packaged make-up air module. It is coupled to new or existing conventional air-conditioning system via a duct. It consists of a triple integrated heat-exchanger combining (liquid) desiccant dehumidification with indirect evaporative cooling, a brine interchanger, and a gas-fired brine heater to regenerate the desiccant. Field experiments of two humidity pumps on existing commercial buildings have been initiated. Each system dehumidifies 5000 scfm of make-up air to meet all the latent loads, which is then fed to conventional, electric-driven HVAC equipment which meet all the sensible loads.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-88-09-24.pdf (467.3Kb)