Browsing Conference Proceedings by Title
Kenney, W. F. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: Sometimes seemingly attractive energy conservation opportunities encounter road blocks by top management. Generally, this happens because the engineer is not working the whole problem as management sees it. Management may be placing greater weight than the engineer on economic uncertainties, capital availability, and concern about reduced manufacturing flexibility. In addition, the energy is usually not a profit center and, therefore, not first priority. Some general strategies for the engineer who must deal with these concerns as effectively as he does the technical and economic aspects are discussed. Several practical examples will be used to illustrate specific applications of the general strategies, and to point out the need for a solid grasp of the technical and economic fundamentals before approaching management. The need for, and role of, a champion for each program is emphasized.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-84-04-04.pdf (6.510Mb)
Kyricopoulos, P. F.; Wikler, G. A.; Faruqui, A.; Wood, B. G. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1995)[more][less]
Abstract: The industrial sector has posed a daunting DSM challenge to utilities throughout North America, even to those with successful and creative residential and commercial DSM programs. Most utilities have had great difficulty in going beyond conventional programs, such as lighting and premium efficiency motor programs, to target process-related efficiency improvement where the big savings are expected. A number of utilities have recently taken significant steps to improve their understanding of industrial customers' needs and DSM potential, with interesting results. Others have introduced creative approaches to meet customer needs in specific industry segments through a continuing process of evaluation and redesigning program elements. This paper reviews our experience with cutting edge industrial DSM programs over the last year, focusing on major obstacles and approaches to overcome them. Studying utilities of varying size and location, we address issues of industrial DSM planning, program design and delivery, and evaluation. We also view the interface of DSM technologies and customer requirements in maintaining competitiveness in the marketplace and attaining environmental compliance. Improved understanding of the industrial customer decision-making process has emerged as a common thread to the recent advances in industrial DSM and marketing. In our study, we stress the importance of market segmentation, identification of key decision makers, and research into specific customer needs and priorities, technology-related and otherwise. We also examine the role of specific technology-related constraints, economic hurdles, environmental needs, and other factors in the success of planning efforts and implementation.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-95-04-49.pdf (5.379Mb)
Lindsay, B. B. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1987)[more][less]
Abstract: In 1985, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) initiated a program with Tecogen, Inc., to develop a nominal 150-ton gas-fueled engine-driven water chiller for commercial buildings. The packaged system has been designed, fabricated, and operated satisfactorily in the laboratory and in a 450-bed hospital. The engine chiller has been redesigned to improve performance, increase capacity, and reduce the footprint, and is undergoing field tests at seven sites to verify performance and reliability.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-87-09-16.pdf (823.1Kb)
Phillips, J. N. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1996)[more][less]
Abstract: It used to be that the only alternative to costly electric air conditioning was the double-effect gas-fired absorption chiller/heaters. Beginning in the 1980's, they were the "star" equipment promoted by gas companies throughout the nation. Although not a new technology at the time, neither was the gas engine. But now in the 19901s, gas engine-drive (GED) chillers have "hit" the air conditioning market with a "bang". In the Lone Star Gas Company area in 1995, GED chillers are now being considered in as many projects as are Absorption. units. Where once the only studies being analyzed were absorption vs. electric chiller operation costs. Now, the choice is: Why, Where, and How to choose between gas fired Absorption and GED chillers. WHY Absorption or Engine ? . Absorption uses the most environmentally friendly refrigerant - water. . Absorption chillers are chiller/heaters Absorption chillers are manufactured by the four US major manufacturers Absorption chillers have few moving parts . Engine chillers provide "free" hot water Engine chillers retrofit with DX systems . Engine chillers use less gas per ton WHERE Do Absorption And Engine Chillers Belong? . Absorption: Office buildings, restaurants, industries, churches, universities . Engine: Hospitals, universities, hotels, apartments, industries HOW To Choose Between Absorption And Engine Chillers? Energy cost Operation and maintenance costs Equipment cost Environmental concerns Thermal requirements . Space requirements Staff experience
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-96-05-32.pdf (331.6Kb)
Schuler, S. H. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1989)[more][less]
Abstract: The purpose of my talk today is to: 1. provide a brief summary of the structural changes which have occurred in the natural gas market over the last several years 2. discuss some of the effects of these changes and some of the potential issues that could result from these changes, and 3. finally to offer some advice on how to develop an effective strategy for purchasing natural gas in the '90s given these changes. To set the stage for my talk today, I need to give you some of the more significant facts relative to our Company and its use of natural gas. Houston Lighting & Power Company (HL&P) is an investor-owned electric utility which serves the city of Houston and the surrounding area. This area is highly industrialized and home to a significant portion of the nation's refining in petrochemical capacity. HL&P has 12,855 MW of generating capacity and sells approximately 25% of Texas' total electric utility sales. As a gas purchaser, HL&P is situated in "pipeline alley" and now has pipeline connections to eight different pipelines and, as a result, access to virtually every major pipeline system that operates within the state of Texas.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-89-09-12.pdf (7.280Mb)
Vari, J. (Energy Systems Laboratory, April 1992)[more][less]
Abstract: Membranes have gained commercial acceptance as proven methods to recover valuable gases from waste gas streams. This paper explores ways in which gas separation membranes are used in the refinery and petrochemical industries to recover and purify hydrogen. Several case studies using Separex® membranes to recover hydrogen from hydrocracker offgas, ammonia purge gas, and methanol purge gas are discussed.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-92-04-26.pdf (666.9Kb)
Koros, W. J.; Paul, D. R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: Commercial membrane-based gas separator systems based upon high-flux, asymmetric polysulfone hollow fibers were first introduced in 1977 by Monsanto. These systems were packaged in compact modules containing large amounts of permeation surface area with productivities (flux/ft3 of module volume) of four to five orders of magnitude higher than previous pIate-and-frame modules. A number of other companies have also entered the field with high-flux dried cellulose acetate in hollow fiber and spiral-wound membrane' configurations. The fundamental principles governing membrane-based gas separations are reviewed in this paper, and examples of applications are presented
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-84-04-89.pdf (8.416Mb)
Michalowski, R. W.; Malloy, M. K. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1985)[more][less]
Abstract: A government complex consisting of a number of State, County, and City buildings is currently under construction in the downtown area of Miami, Florida. Thermo Electron Corporation and Rolls- Royce Inc. are providing a unique fuel saving cogeneration system to supply the air conditioning and electrical power requirements of the complex. This $30 million cogeneration plant will occupy a portion of a multiple-use building which will also house offices, indoor parking facilities, and additional building support systems. Locating such a powerplant in downtown Miami presents significant construction scheduling, environmental, and engineering challenges. Issues such as space limitations, emissions, noise pollution, and maintenance have been carefully addressed and successfully resolved.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-85-05-25.pdf (980.2Kb)
Anderson, J. S.; Kovacik, J. M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), June 1990)[more][less]
Abstract: The pulp and paper industry is one of the largest users of energy in the industrial arena. Large quantities of process steam and electrical energy are required per unit of production. The pulp and paper industry has recognized the thermodynamic benefits and potentially attractive economics of developing power generation as an integral part of their power plant systems. The large requirements for process steam combined with process by-products and wood wastes make steam turbines a serious consideration in plant locations where suitable economic conditions are present. And many systems incorporating a wide variety of steam turbine types have been installed and are contributing toward profitable operations. In recent years, competitive pressures, environmental concerns, the cost and availability of various fuels, and new power generation opportunities have awakened the interest in power generation in the pulp and paper industry, as well as others. A strategic review of these issues creates the opportunity to favorably position the pulp and paper industry for the coming century. The industry has also become aware that gas turbine-based cogeneration systems can frequently be highly desirable relative to their traditional steam turbine approach.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-90-06-22.pdf (6.433Mb)
Frederick, J. D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), June 1990)[more][less]
Abstract: Historically, preliminary design information regarding gas turbine emissions has been unreliable, particularly for facilities using steam injection and other forms of Best Available Control Technology (BACT). This was probably attributed to the lack of regulatory interest in the 'real world' test results coupled with the difficulties of gathering analogous bench test data for systems employing gas turbines with Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG) and steam injection. It appears that the agencies are getting a better grasp of emissions, but there are still problem areas, particularly CO and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. The lag in data has resulted in the imposition of a CO reactor as BACT for the gas turbine. With the renewed concern about the environment, air permits will have a high profile with offsets being the next fix beyond BACT. 'The manner in which technology developers and electric utilities will share emissions reductions in the coming era of pollution allowance trading is becoming prominent on the agendas of strategic planners at technology vendors and the electric power industry....' (1) Therefore, it becomes increasingly important that the proponents of gas turbine-based facilities establish more reliable data on their proposed emissions. This paper addresses the gas turbine emissions experiences of eight cogeneration plants utilizing: 1) steam injection for both NOx control and power augmentation, 2) CO reactors, 3) selective catalytic reduction units. It also looks at possible regulatory actions.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-90-06-23.pdf (3.364Mb)
Iaquaniello, G.; Pietrogrande, P. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1985)[more][less]
Meher-Homji, C. B.; Focke, A. B. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1985)[more][less]
Abstract: The growth of cogeneration technology has accelerated in recent years, and it is estimated that fifty percent of the cogeneration market will involve gas turbines. To several energy engineers, gas turbine engines present a new and somewhat perplexing prime mover. This paper (Parts A & B) intends to treat the area of gas turbine technology to provide a broad overview and understanding of this subject. This paper (Part A) covers the basics of gas turbine cycles, thermodynamics and performance considerations that are important in cogeneration. Simple, regenerative and combined cycles will be discussed, along with important performance losses (inlet and exit losses and part load operation). Waste heat recovery, as it relates to gas turbine performance, will also be discussed. This paper will provide the basic equations enabling quick computations to be made. Topics such as typical efficiencies, evaporative cooling costs, emissions, etc. will be discussed. A brief discussion of advanced cycles such as the dual fluid cycle and close cycles is also made.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-85-05-21.pdf (824.8Kb)
Meher-Homji, C. B.; Focke, A. B. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1985)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper builds on Part A and discusses the hardware involved in gas turbines as well as operations and maintenance aspects pertinent to cogeneration plants. Different categories of gas turbines are reviewed such as heavy duty aeroderivative, single and split shaft. The pros and cons of different types are reviewed. Gas turbine component types - axial and centrifugal compressors and different turbine types, along with combustor types will be discussed. Important considerations during machine specifications are also reviewed. Practical aspects such as coatings, materials, fuel handling and auxiliary systems will also be highlighted. Operations and maintenance aspects including Preventative Maintenance, Repairs, Fuel and Air Filtration, Compressor Washing and Reliability is discussed. Typical operating and maintenance costs are provided. This paper presents an extensive bibliography to enable readers to follow up any topic in detail.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-85-05-22.pdf (824.7Kb)
Banchik, I. N.; Bohannan, W. R.; Stork, K.; McGovern, L. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1981)[more][less]
Abstract: It is a well known fact that the gas turbine in a combined cycle has a higher inherent Carnot efficiency than the steam cycle which has been more generally accepted by industry. Unlike steam turbines, gas turbines do not require large boiler feed water, condensate and cooling water facilities. The benefits of the high efficiency of combined cycle gas turbines can only be realized if the energy in the hot exhaust can be utilized. Data for several plants, in various stages of engineering, in which clean fuel gas for the gas turbine is produced by gasification of coal, are presented. Waste heat from the gasifier and the gas turbine exhaust is converted to high pressure steam for steam turbines. Gas turbines may find application in other industrial processes, namely in the production of ammonia, LNG, and olefins. These options are briefly discussed.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-81-04-102.pdf (1.507Mb)
Loberg, T. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1980)[more][less]
Abstract: The gas industry fostered more efficient energy utilization long before the idea of energy conservation became fashionable. It became apparent in the late '60's that misguided Federal Legislation was discouraging necessary search for new gas supplies and the gas industry mounted a determined engineering and development effort to stretch existing supplies until changes in the legislation could be implemented. These and similar programs are ongoing even now that the outlook for new gas supplies is constantly improving. This paper makes references to specific efforts by gas utilities in concert with industrial users.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-80-04-36.pdf (781.2Kb)
Keller, G. E., II (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: Gas-adsorption processes are commonly used in the petroleum, natural-gas, petrochemical and other industries. It is important to be aware of those process situations which favor the use of adsorption, and although no hard and fast rules can be given. some generalizations can be, and the first part of the paper is devoted to a discussion of these generalizations. Adsorption processes come in a wide range of physical embodiments. These embodiments are first discussed as idealizations, and their strong points and weak points are delineated. Next, several specific process flow sheets which have been commercialized rather recently and which may be extrapolable to other separations are discussed. Finally, the issue of where gas-adsorption technology is headed is confronted. Suggestions are made as to possible new and expanded applications.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-84-04-88.pdf (3.635Mb)
Winn, C. B.; Burns, P.; Guire, J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: A gas-fired vented zone heater has recently been developed by the Altar Corporation for Colorado State University (CSU) under a Gas Research Institute (GRI) contract. The unit war developed for auxiliary heating applications in passive solar buildings. An early prototype was tested at Altas and operated as expected. The final model was shipped to CSU in December 1983 for testing in the REPEAT Facility at CSU. A heat pipe extends through the wall to the outside of the building. It has a modest water charge which can freeze repeatedly with no damage, since the heat pips is only partially filled. Firing efficiency at 4,000 Btu/b (1.17 kW thermal) is approximately 80%. The unit features a 3 foot by 3 foot radiator mounted inside the room to be heated, and is thermostatically controlled. Ignition is accomplished with an electronic sparker (pilot). The radiator typically operates at 150-180°F (65-82°C), and has been operated at between 2,000 and 5,000 Btu/h (0.6-1.47 kW). Results of testing the vented heat pipe zone heater at CSU arm presented. Also, a method for determining the optimal combination of zone heater, passive solar heating and energy conservation measures has been developed. Nomographs have been developed that may be used by a building designer to determine the optimal combination of zone heater size, passive solar system size, and energy conservation measures for given types of passive solar heating systems in selected locations. A representative nomograph is presented along with a design example.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-84-08-06.pdf (1.062Mb)
Schmeal, W. R.; Royall, D.; Wrenn, K. F. Jr. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1997)[more][less]
Abstract: The electric and gas industries are each in the process of restructuring and "converging" toward one mission: providing energy. Use of natural gas in generating electric power and use of electricity in transporting natural gas will increase as this occurs. Through an Electric Power Research Institute initiative, an inter-industry organization, the Gas/Electric Partnership, has formed between the electric utilities and gas pipelines. The initial focus of this partnership is to explore issues of culture, technology, and economics in using electric motor driven compressors for moving gas to market.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-97-04-13.pdf (4.309Mb)
Hyland, M. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1981)[more][less]
Abstract: Producing alcohol from agricultural products is a very controversial topic in the U.S. today. This paper presents information on the overall energy balance and clears up the recent controversy on the actual efficiency to be expected in these plants. It also discusses the expected production costs, and the possible areas for technology development. The effect of alcohol production on the overall grain picture is also evaluated. The current situation is at first glance very confusing: - Efficiency of making alcohol is claimed to be as low as 40% by opponents while proponents talk of over 100% - Effects on the feed grain market are said to be anything from negligible to drastic. This paper, presents information which should clear up the controversy.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-81-04-55.pdf (702.2Kb)
McCammon, W. L. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1982)[more][less]
Abstract: With the advent of the crude oil price increases, associated with the Middle East crisis, many countries, particularly Brazil, began producing ethanol for the use as fuel in mixture with gasoline. In the United States, 'gasohol', a blend of approximately 90% gasoline and 10% ethanol began to be marketed. It was quickly accepted in a market which at that time was being controlled by political and supply problems. Major global and domestic events such as the general glut in the world supply of crude oil, decontrol of prices, lower demand for gasoline and the effect of the current administration on government funding and/or guarantees and the lack thereof, has resulted in a restructing and change in the industry. This paper will briefly describe events leading to the current marketing situation involving octane enhancement, government involvement, predictions as to future production and marketing strategies and a description of a major 'grass roots' ethanol plant currently being constructed in Franklin, Kentucky.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-82-04-78.pdf (1.228Mb)