Browsing Conference Proceedings by Title
Tooley, J. J.; Moyer, N. A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1989)[more][less]
Abstract: Forced air heating ard air corditioning duct systems in residential housing have been largely overlcoked in house diagnostics. Even the building is itself a part of the overall ir distribution system. When a duct system fails, it can have some serious effects on the home. Proper air flow within the corditioned space is as important as the air flow within the duct line. Failure of a duct system or even the closing of the interior dcors can create pressure differentials both within ard across the building envelope when the heating and air conditioning fan is in operation. These failures may cause increased energy usage, poor indoor air quality and even promote multiple moisture problems.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-89-10-04.pdf (401.4Kb)
Fletcher, R. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Energy is consumed, and wasted, in liberal amounts in the combustion processes which supply heat energy to boilers and process heaters. Close attention to combustion systems can be extremely beneficial: Optimum air to fuel ratios, i.e., maintaining the lowest excess air possible, for example, can produce big savings. Maintaining combustion equipment - from fuel preparation equipment through burners and controls in optimum operating condition also can save large amounts of energy, and keep a plant running smoothly without unexpected, disruptive and costly downtime. These are the subjects of this article.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-45.pdf (1.508Mb)
Hopkins, D.; Downing, T. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), June 1986)[more][less]
Abstract: Following evaluation of various CO monitors and close attention to the boiler operating conditions, Southwestern Public Service Company has been successful in reducing the operating level of oxygen in Unit #1 at Tolk Station. This paper will present the experience to this point indicating the value of the increased efficiency and the annual fuel savings possible from this O2 reduction. Unit til 1.8 a pulverized coal fired, 565 MW, CE boiler system placed in service July 27, 1982. Complete and safe combustion in this boiler is maintained by continuously monitoring O2 and CO in the boiler exhaust. The addition of CO monitors has enabled SPS to begin the process of establishing exhaust O2 levels at each firing rate. The CO signal is recorded and monitored, but it has not been used as an active element in closed loop control. The target CO level of 100-200 ppm produces an average O2 level of between 2.0% and 2.5%. Transient peaks of 1000 to 1200 ppm of CO are not unusual because CO production is affected by many process variables. SPS's selection of a multi-parameter CO/CO2/H2O instrument provide the ability to measure CO2 and CO and to validate accuracy of these components on-line by introduction of standard gases at stack temperature and pressure. Crosschecking the O2 monitor and the calculated O2 reading from the CO monitor, also, provides on-fine confirmation of each instrument. Experience also validates the relationship between CO, excess air and NOx production.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-86-06-107.pdf (1.204Mb)
Saman, N. F.; Johnson, H. (Energy Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, April 1994)[more][less]
Abstract: A methodology for a psychrometric analysis of the problem of maintaining space temperature and humidity in the digital switch environment is presented. Such spaces produce minimum or no humidity generation. Several different humidification schemes, including isothermal (steam generation) and adiabatic (evaporative cooling) were analyzed. In some cases, the addition of a steam humidifier to an air handling system with an outside air economizer cycle was seen to require more energy than running the same system on minimal outside air with mechanical refrigeration and substantially lower moisture load. Because individual locations will have different operational parameters, this sort of analysis is done by the design engineer as a tool in selection and design of an appropriate humidification system.
Description: The intent of this paper is to outline a simple methodology to compute cooling and humidification loads at any location, using a variety of techniques for space conditioning. Application of the methodology for a given location will yield a comparative estimate for the amount of energy used for different space conditioning strategies. Although there are numerous building energy calculation methods ranging from simple degree-day procedures to comprehensive and computerized procedures which simulate building heat transfer and system/equipment performance, the Bin Method was chosen for this analysis. With this method, simplified manual calculations that account for the significant parameters affecting the energy usage in buildings are possible. Bin data is given in tabular form as the number of hours per year in which the ambient temperature falls in a given 5 degree window. Inasmuch as coincident wet bulb and specific humidity are given for each dry bulb window, the Bin Method further provides means of evaluating annual humidification loads. Using this technique, different cooling and humidification strategies for the space can be evaluated.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-94-04-58.pdf (4.432Mb)
McClure, J. D.; Estes, J. M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1986)[more][less]
Abstract: Maintenance and operations of schools with energy efficiency as a priority can reduce annual utility costs 3 to 30 percent. Most school districts do not have an organized plan for tracking energy usage or cost. Energy performance (e.g. Btu/ft^2-yr, $/ft^2-yr) is not monitored or understood by many school administrators and board members. This paper discusses the authors 1985-86 experience and observations in accomplishing specific on-site maintenance and operations evaluations of school buildings in more than 100 Texas public school districts. The most commonly observed problems in maintaining and operating public schools for energy efficiency are presented along with successful basic methods of inspecting schools for energy efficient maintenance and operating techniques.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-86-11-14.pdf (392.8Kb)
Bristow, G.; Clendenin, M.; McClure, J. D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2004)[more][less]
Abstract: The expansion and maintenance of building systems on educational campuses require huge financial expenditures. Public schools and colleges must make the most of each available dollar. The combination of effective building systems master planning and purchasing standardization program management (PSPM) maximizes purchasing power. Proper building systems master planning helps owners get what they want from buildings with greater opportunity for success. Master planning yields benefits in budgeting, staffing, equipment, and opportunities for standardization. PSPM is a strategy utilizing the “buy now-pay later” concept. Equipment is pre-selected and prepriced for projects as outlined in building systems master plans, and, frequently, in bond programs. Bulk purchasing and standardization, while normally thought of in reference to office and cleaning supplies, can also be applied to big-ticket items. The result is reduced first costs and a domino effect of other savings. Case studies will be presented from Texas school districts that demonstrate successful building systems master planning and PSPM programs. The authors' experience in assisting Texas ISDs implement these programs will also be shared.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-04-05-17.pdf (415.2Kb)
Porri, R. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1996)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper presents a decision making process that will permit the design, installation and operation of a high efficiency and reliable compressed air system. The design of a compressed air system was formerly limited to the selection of an air compressor large enough to deliver sufficient compressed air for the estimated system requirements. As system air requirements grew, additional compressors were added. Today, modern, high quality manufacturing facilities require a more scientific approach. Many manufacturing processes require strict controls over compressed air pressure, temperature and purity levels. Competitive pressures also force manufacturers to drive product and operating costs to an absolute minimum. This paper will detail the initial system design criteria that must be addressed prior to issuing procurement specifications. Once the system design criteria is determined, the equipment specification, selection and installation process will follow.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-96-04-32.pdf (1.598Mb)
Cohen, K. C. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1980)[more][less]
Abstract: Making education and training impact on anyone these days seems to be an increasing difficult problem. Perhaps one of the reasons we see this growing problem and our relative failure in attempts to make education and training more effective is that institutions and individual motivations, which we have traditionally relied upon to create an educated or trained person, are in a tremendous state of flux. In this paper I should like to explore factors or areas which impact on industrial training and education, and then present to you an innovative system which deals more effectively and more appropriately with each of these factors in order to create more effective programs. By more effective programs, I mean programs which are utilized by the individuals who are supposed to be "educated" or "trained" and which actually help them increase their productivity and performance levels on the job.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-80-04-42.pdf (974.8Kb)
Abd El-Ghafour, N.G. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2010)[more][less]
Abstract: The ceramic tiles industry produces a lot of wastes such as ceramic sludge, broken under quality tiles and the ceramic dust. The accumulated wastes comprise a great pollution problem on the surrounded environment. The ceramic properties of Egyptian clays show that they are highly plastic and very sensitive upon drying. Accordingly, they are continuously in need to some additives for adjusting such properties. The environmental impact of this work is producing a green building unit has a zero waste energy. The recycling of ceramic solid waste industry in building operations contributes with minimizing the energy consumption and the cost of building to achieve building sustainability. In this work each of 15, 25 and 50% ceramic sludge solid waste were mixed with a chosen clayey raw material for making green building bricks. The mix contains 15% sludge and 85% clay shows a lower plasticity coefficient and an insensitive behaviour upon drying in addition to suitable physico-mechanical properties for the fired clay articles. This suggested mix was applied within a common brick fabric in Egypt for studying the possibility of its industrial application.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IC-10-10-08.pdf (616.1Kb)
Haun, C. R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1985)[more][less]
Abstract: Saving energy in multi-family buildings is a comparatively easy task to accomplish in theory: engineering science has shown us how to reduce heatloss and air infiltration, how to balance systems and improve heating plant efficiency, and how to capture warmth from the air, the earth and the sea. But getting this knowledge into multi-family buildings and making them energy efficient in fact is very difficult, especially if those buildings house low-income and elderly tenants, the people for whom saving energy is most urgent. Energy practitioners have found that multifamily building owners are not buying energy efficiency because it is not being marketed intelligently; affordable financing is very difficult to obtain, and energy education tailored to the needs of owners, occupants and maintenance crews is practically unknown. This paper discusses how four non-profit energy companies, located in major cities, overcame these obstacles. It explains how they market energy conservation improvements, how they finance them, and how they involve tenants in energy education; i.e., how they make energy efficiency happen in multifamily buildings.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-85-09-48.pdf (460.3Kb)
Kosny, J.; Childs, P. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2002)[more][less]
Abstract: In many world regions like North America and Scandinavia wood framing is dominant technology for residential buildings. During last two decades several companies around the world started to promote a low-gage steel framing for residential and commercial buildings. Steel framing has many advantages over wood framing; strength, low weight, dimensional stability, resistance to termite damage, almost 100% recycleability, etc .. However because of several reasons an application of steel as a framing material in US residential building market is relatively low. Steel industry has noticed much more success on commercial building market which is not as rigorous regarding thermal efficiency and energy conservation. Steel framing has one significant disadvantage over wood; Steel members conduct heat extremely well. This effect is known as thermal bridging, and it can sharply reduce a wall's effective Rvalue. The simplest and most common way to overcome this problem is to block the path of heat flow with rigid foam insulation. Adding rigid foam insulation not only increases the whole wall's R-value, but it also reduces the temperature difference between the center of the cavity and the stud area, which cuts down on the possibility of black stains forming from dirt getting asymmetrically attracted to cold spots on a wall's surface. However, rigid foam insulation is an expensive solution. Several material configurations were developed in the past to increase thermal effectiveness of steel-framed structures. This paper is focused on most common options of thermal improvements of steels framed walls. They were as follow: 1) diminishing the contact area between the studs and exterior sheathing materials, 2) reducing the steel stud web area, 3) replacing the steel web with a less conductive material, and 4) placing foam insulation in locations where the thermal shorts are most critical. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have utilized both hot box testing and computer simulations in aim to optimize thermal design of steel stud walls.. While examining several material options, ORNL's BTC was also striving to develop energy-efficient steel stud wall technologies that would enable steel-stud walls to beat the performance of traditional 2 x 6 wood stud walls. Several, most current, ORNL developments in steel framing are presented below.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-02-05-40.pdf (1.305Mb)
Bishop, D. L. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1980)[more][less]
Abstract: Several years ago, a training session was being held at an electric generating plant in the Midwest. One of the subjects covered in the session was steamline drain traps. One of the trainees checked several of the steam traps when he went back on shift following the training session. He found that 2 of those that he checked had the bypass valves open, directly bypassing steam from the steamline to the condenser. He closed the bypass valves to put the traps into operation, as they should have been since the traps were operable. The condenser vacuum went up by one inch of mercury vacuum. The estimated savings as a result of this action were about $12,000 per week in coal costs!
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-80-04-138.pdf (1.027Mb)
Plaster, W. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Immense amounts of energy are being thrown away every day in petroleum refineries, chemical plants, and throughout all types of industrial operations. Much of this energy is at temperature levels below 350OF and is typically rejected to the atmosphere through cooling towers and air fin coolers. We will designate this as "low-level heat". Between 20 to 30% of all the energy that enters a plant is lost as low-level heat. In a 100,000 BPD refinery, this is the equivalent of about 2,500 BPD of oil, or 15 billion Btu's per day. If any improvement can be made in the recovery and reuse of this heat, the energy efficiency of our plants would be significantly increased.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-108.pdf (1.124Mb)
Morgan, S. W.; Parker, S. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1989)[more][less]
Abstract: The recent turnaround in the chemical industry has meant that contractors are once again competing vigorously for new plant orders. This has meant plant designs have required rapid evaluation and where necessary improvement to make the competitive in the current economic climate. One tool, mainly developed during the lean years, that has been used extensively for this task the Pinch Technology. Kellogg has found this technology invaluable and the correct use of it has led to significant improvements in plant designs. As an example of the benefits that can result from using Pinch Technology, the cold end of an ethylene flowsheet is examined. In this study energy savings are identified. However, the most significant savings come about through reducing heat exchanger surface area requirements.
Files in this item: 2ESL-IE-89-09-61.pdf (3.500Mb)(more files)
Brady, N. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2012)[more][less]
Yang, J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2006)[more][less]
Abstract: With the development of the scale of central heating, a higher managing level is needed for the heating substation. How to economize the more energy is the first factor that managers need to consider while ensuring the comfort of the heating consumer. The development of automation technology and the reduction in automation product prices and equipment supply, the technology guarantees reasonable heating of the heating substation. At the same time it brings a new problem-for ensuring the balance between investment and income, how to process central regulation at the heating substation? According to the three elements consisting of heat resource, heat consumer and heat-supply network, the article puts forward the basic principle of selecting the mode of central regulation, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of all kinds of regulation modes, and the essentials that designer should regard. In addition, the article especially studies the arithmetic of the controller, and discusses the possibility of replacing the normal PI or PID tune with fuzzy control by a case of quantitative regulation.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IC-06-11-213.pdf (375.1Kb)
Gehl, P. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), March 1993)[more][less]
Abstract: The good computerized maintenance management systems available today provide Plant Engineers with sufficient data to institute policies and procedures to materially affect the company profits. Regrettably, the vast majority of these Engineers and their Maintenance Managers seem content to simply produce PM work orders, maintenance equipment repair histories and generate a few activity reports. A straightforward and practical application of the available cost and performance data enables maintenance management to constantly fine tune operational procedures to minimize cost and equipment failure from the available data. Using this data, the manager can easily measure the total effect of maintenance on his company's overall performance. The practical application of this data to reduce overall maintenance cost and to increase equipment availability is discussed in this paper.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-93-03-15.pdf (3.713Mb)
ElSherbini, A. I.; Maheshwari, G.; Al-Naqib, D.; Al-Mulla, A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), November 2009)[more][less]
Abstract: In hot summers, the demand for electrical power is dominated by the requirements of the air-conditioning and lighting systems. Such systems account for more than 80% of the peak electrical demand in Kuwait. A study was conducted to explore the potential for managing the peak electrical demand through improved operation strategies for building systems. Two buildings with partial occupancy patterns and typical peak loads of 1 and 2.2 MW were investigated. Changes to the operation of building systems included utilizing the thermal mass to reduce cooling production and distribution during the last hour of occupancy, time-of-day control of chillers and auxiliaries, and de-lamping. The implemented operational changes led to significant reductions in building loads during the hours of national peak demand. The achieved savings reached 31% during the critical hour, and up to 47% afterwards. Daily energy savings of 13% represented an added benefit. Additional operational changes could lead to further savings in peak power when implemented.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IC-09-11-35.pdf (592.1Kb)
Huntington, P.; Mayfield, E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1987)[more][less]
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare several factors in the management skills of principals which affected energy utilization and, therefore, increased or decreased energy consumption in the school plant. This study provided districts with information to differentiate between management skills exhibited by school principals in meeting their energy utilization goals. This information could be used to design in service programs on energy utilization for principals to define the role of administrators in energy conservation and to alert certification institutions of any facility management deficiencies in administrative training. This study provided baseline data for the energy management systems companies involved in districts' conservation efforts during the late 1980s to educate principals in energy conservation.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-87-09-22.pdf (565.0Kb)