Browsing Conference Proceedings by Title
Govindan, T. S. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Du Pont Energy Management Services has done energy studies at a number of refining and petrochemical plants. These studies are done through a rigorous, systematic, and objective analysis of all plant systems and equipment that convert, transport, use, or reject significant quantities of energy. The approach taken for these studies and several examples of specific energy savings items will be reviewed. The importance of an optimum steam system for overall energy efficiency will be discussed. The economical use of topping turbines in the steam system versus other mechanical energy options, savings possible from combustion versus other mechanical energy options, savings possible from combustion excess air control in boilers and fired heaters, and energy saving techniques on distillation columns will be reviewed. The discussion will also include an explanation of the key points in developing a successful energy conservation program.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-111.pdf (1.143Mb)
Houcek, J. K. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2005)[more][less]
Chittum, A.; Kaufman, N. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2011)[more][less]
Abstract: Combined heat and power (CHP), which can offer tremendous efficiency benefits to industrial facilities around the country, continues to be viewed as a long-term efficiency opportunity. However, the high up-front cost of CHP equipment and fuel-dependent operating costs have made CHP a difficult sell internally in some corporations. The recent recession and slow recovery have further discouraged facility managers and owners from making large capital investments such as CHP. This paper addresses the biggest barriers to new CHP project development from the perspective of those intimately involved in moving new CHP projects forward: CHP developers and CHP advocates. It identifies economic and financial barriers as the largest common barriers found throughout the U.S. It also suggests ways that CHP developers and advocates can address these barriers, and attempts to overcome them in the current economic context.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-11-05-20.pdf (715.3Kb)
Feng, Hua; Liu, Jinghing; Liu, Xiang; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Deng, Alan (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2012)[more][less]
Abstract: Steam turbines have been widely used in oil refineries for driving pumps, compressors and other rotary machines. However, in recent years, the authors of this paper have seen substantial turbine motorization projects completed or being planned in the refineries. This paper discusses the key aspects that should be considered in evaluating the feasibility of motorization projects. Based on the literature review and a refinery survey conducted by the authors, the key factors include the critical level of the related equipment, the potential energy savings and capital cost, the steam and power balance in the related area, and the reliability in the refinery's power supply. Based on the authors' experience, the utilities' energy efficiency incentive programs in California also influence the decision-making process for turbine motorization projects. Therefore, this paper includes a description of the utilities' guidelines for fuel substitution projects. In particular, the utilities' three-prong requirements on net source-BTU energy savings, cost effectiveness, and avoidance of adverse impacts to the environment are discussed. Two real life case studies are presented to demonstrate how the above criteria should be applied for determining if a motorization opportunity is economically viable. A discussion on suggested features is also included for prescreening turbine motorization project candidates for better energy and environment economics such as venting of exhaust steam from a back pressure turbine and oversized design of the existing turbine and pump.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-12-05-02.pdf (341.0Kb)
Miller, W. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2001)[more][less]
Abstract: Resource conservation management is a management program similar to financial management in that its success requires commitment by all levels of the organization to the process as well as an accounting procedure and auditing of critical components. Resource conservation management provides a framework for all elements of efficient building operations and maintenance. The savings connected with the program are principally connected with changes in the way buildings are operated and maintained. This paper discusses the evolution of the resource conservation management service and the savings associated with the two-year pilot effort with seven school districts as well as the critical components of a successful program. The hope is that top-management will recognize the value of resource conservation management in keeping their overhead costs under control and will incorporate it into the management structure of their jurisdiction or firm.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IC-01-07-20.pdf (445.2Kb)
Tuip, B.; Houten, M.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2010)[more][less]
Abstract: Buildings rarely perform as designed. Improving building functioning could be of great value for different stakeholders as building users, building owners and maintenance companies. In this study, a prototype procedure is developed for an on-line, self learning fault detection tool on building level. Taking passive user behavior into account, the tool aims to distinguish real faults from unexpected user behavior. An artificial neural network model is used to predict building energy consumption based on real time weather conditions and occupancy. Fault detection is performed by comparing this predicted consumption with measured values. The prototype procedure is currently tested in an office building in the Netherlands, the first results are promising.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IC-10-10-36.pdf (724.4Kb)
Nordyke, H. G., Jr. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: Georgia Power's Off-Peak Rider encourages load reductions up to 40% during on-peak periods over four summer months each year. Since summer on-peak time represents about 50% of available time, the customer's productive summer capacity may be reduced 20%, or about 7% annually. Billing demand is reduced year round in proportion to cut-backs taken during the summer on-peak period. Examples will be developed that quantity benefits to large, high load factor customers of Georgia Power Company who have elected to take service under provisions of the off-peak rider.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-84-04-43.pdf (1.913Mb)
Williams, S. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1994)[more][less]
Abstract: Traditionally, energy efficiency projects have been financed by energy service companies (ESCOs) under a shared savings arrangement known as performance contracting. Essentially, performance contracting packages engineering, procurement and construction management services with project finance to provide companies with an ability to implement energy efficiency projects on an off-balance sheet basis. For large industrials, who have ready access to engineering services, the real attractiveness of performance contracting is the off-balance sheet nature of the financing. However, as every energy manager has experienced, selling the next shared savings deal internally can be a difficult task at best. Financial types react coolly to transactions in which the effective interest rates can range from 15% 30%. The ideal product for industrials would be a pure financing arrangement, that is off-balance sheet, low cost and capable of being funded by banks and leasing companies. Specifically, a traditional asset-based lending product, called an off-balance sheet loan (OBL), can be adapted to the financing of energy efficiency projects. Structured properly, an OBL can provide industrials with the same off-balance sheet benefit as performance contracting, but at a greatly reduced cost. Typically, the interest rate on an OBL will approximate an industrial's incremental borrowing rate and is currently around 8.0% -10.0%.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-94-04-24.pdf (3.740Mb)
Song, L.; Liu, M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2002)[more][less]
Abstract: Both analytical and the numerical methods have been developed to compares the energy performance of the OAHU systems and the two-AHU (TAHU) system. The OAHU system saves up to 1.85 kilojoules heating energy for each kilogram air supplied to the building, or 0.8 Btu for each pound air supplied to the building when the outside air dew point temperature is less than the room dew point temperature. When the outside air dew point temperature is higher than the room dew point temperature, the OAHU system saves up to 4.65 kilojoules heating and cooling energy for each kilogram air supplied to the building, or 2 Btu for each pound air supplied to the building. Both OAHU and TAHU consume the same amount of fan energy. The paper presents the system models, the simulation procedures and the simulation results.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-02-05-08.pdf (759.3Kb)
Tackett, R. K. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1989)[more][less]
Abstract: Ice storage offers many opportunities to use other tcchnologies, such as heat recovery and cold-air distribution. In fact, by using them, the designer can improve the efficiency and lower the construction cost of an ice system. This paper presents a case study of a large (550,000 square feet) office building which combines these ideas into one HVAC system. By integrating these technologies to take advantage of the unique characteristics of ice storage, the engineers created a system that provided a 1-1/2 year simple payback. The system reduces operating costs by over $0.16 per square foot each year, yet it increased the net HVAC budget by only $0.22 per square foot.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-89-10-13.pdf (456.1Kb)
Forster, P.; Arndt, J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), October 2008)[more][less]
Abstract: Sustainability has recently become a recognized feature in office developments. This lecture will focus on the motivation for a developer to introduce sustainability to a project and also on the approach of MEP consultants to match the new requirements. From a developers point of view many design decisions are based on cost issues. If “sustainable systems” match or exceed other solutions in terms of low investment costs, minimal space requirements or operating costs it is very likely for these systems to be introduced to projects. With the recent interest of tenants in “green issues” sustainability is now also being used as a marketing point for developments. This new market interest has arrived from almost no-where. In a market research from Vivico from (2004) our “typical” tenant did not show any great interest in ecological issues. These new requirements in general demand a quick adaption from investors. Vivico has always shown a great commitment to sustainability. Our track record shows a sound knowledge with technical solution such as geothermal energy systems or developments following comprehensive sustainability criteria from the scheme design through to fit-out. Vivico was also involved in pilot certifications for the German EnEV (European directive on energy performance of buildings. Another important motivation for energy-saving solutions are new government regulations, such as the German EnEV. The focus within project developments is to achieve good energy rating. Unfortunately, the government’s perspective of the EnEV is based on an overall value, the primary energy consumption of a building. As for example the primary energy factor in case of district heating is very much dependant on the “energy quality” of local utility suppliers, this overall value of the EnEV is not only dependant on the commitment of an investor to energy-saving solutions, but also to factors outside his reach. In order to be able to introduce even more “sustainability” to projects, some current problems have to overcome. German legal requirements define summer indoor temperatures and a noncompliance can lead to rent reductions or lease terminations. A softer approach as far as defining temperatures in working environments is concerned could help introduce other energy-saving systems. Some tenant target temperatures are even fixed within the lease contract over and above the legal requirements. If more of our tenants understood the impact of such requirements, provisions for overcapacity within cooling systems could be reduced. The technical part of the lecture gives a brief overview of current options to reach energy efficient and sustainable building solutions. It will be distinguished between active and passive means; for example the reduction of energy usage by using good building design concepts, or using natural resources and highly efficient building technologies to save fossil fuels. New technologies will also be highlighted with a view to future developments. Based on the various options described, a current Vivico Real Estate development, with Ebert- Ingenieure as their MEP-consultants, will be presented. The design process from the first steps and considerations through to the final solutions will be described.
Description: Cover Sheet and PowerPoint Presentation
Files in this item: 2ESL-IC-08-10-35.pdf (292.6Kb)(more files)
Davis, M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1989)[more][less]
Abstract: Our commitment to reliable electric power does not stop at the meter, but extends all the way to the equipment that it operates. Through the Power Quality Program, we provide professional power consultants to assure that the customer has quality power all the way to where they need it. The consultants, at no cost to the customer, will work with them to perform a power quality survey of their building to determine the kind and source of disturbances affecting their equipment. Various solutions to the problem will be evaluated and the most cost-effective ones will be recommended. If the solution requires such power conditioning equipment as transient surge suppressors, power line conditioners or uninterruptible power supplies, we can provide the equipment. A convenient lease finance plan is available to make the equipment affordable.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-89-09-62.pdf (1.888Mb)
Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2006)[more][less]
Abstract: Most conventional air heaters adopt indirect heat transfer, which uses combustion gases to indirectly heat fresh air by heating surfaces to generate hot air used for material drying and dehumidification. We call them indirect air heaters. However, they have a higher manufacturing cost and lower thermal efficiency, especially when high temperature air is needed. For this reason, a direct air heater applicable for or feed and industrial raw products is put forward, which has advantages such as less production cost, smaller dimensions and higher thermal efficiency. Their design, working principles, characteristics, structure and applications are presented in this article, and brief comparisons are made between the indirect and direct air heater. Finally, the relation of hot-air temperature, oil or gas consumption and fresh airflow is determined based on energy equilibrium.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IC-06-11-65.pdf (309.7Kb)
Ula, S.; Bershinsky, V.; Cain, W. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1995)[more][less]
Abstract: The Wyoming Electric Motor Training and Testing Center (WEMTTC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy-Denver Support Office and the Naval Petroleum Reserve #3 (NPR-3), has conducted an extensive study of electric motor efficiency at the Reserve's oil field near Casper, Wyoming. As a result of this project, WEMTTC has developed a new test method for estimating an electric motor's operating efficiency, and the instrumentation to implement this test method. Using the new test method and instrumentation, several oversized or inefficient motors were replaced with new generation, high-efficiency motors, and the savings documented. This paper describes the test method and instrumentation developed by WEMTTC. The results obtained from the actual energy-efficient motor retrofits are also presented.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-95-04-30.pdf (4.253Mb)
Causilla, H.; Acosta, J. R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1982)[more][less]
Abstract: Realizing that the use of coal has the potential to offset the effects of world oil prices on the Dominican Republic's economy, the Commission Nacional de Politica Energetica (CNPE) requested Bechtel Power Corporation to study the technical and economic feasibility of converting the nation's largest oil-fired facilities to coal and to develop preliminary designs for the conversions. This paper addresses the methodology used in the study, with special emphasis on the determination of the technical and economic feasibility of converting power plants and cement plants from oil to coal. The summary results and conclusions are presented and include coal conversion capital costs, cost savings, and program overall schedule. The intent of the authors is to provide a reference for the study of converting other islands' oil burning facilities to coal.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-82-04-163.pdf (1.685Mb)
Estes, C. B.; Turner, W. C. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1980)[more][less]
Abstract: Each and every citizen has been affected by the energy crisis by now. Business and industry have especially been hurt as the rising cost of energy and its dwindling supplies are the twin jaws of a vise rapidly closing in on profits. Much work is being done in large companies; but most small to medium companies have yet to undertake a substantial energy management program. The reasons are many but often they simply I do not understand the savings possible or the techniques available. Recognizing this, the Oklahoma Department of Energy designed a program to acquaint Oklahoma industry with the potential savings available through energy management and some basic techniques. The program is, entitled "Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program" and is housed at Oklahoma State University. The program is funded by the U. S. Department of Energy through the State Energy Conservation Plan. This paper describes the program offerings, impact to date and plans for the future.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-80-04-132.pdf (1.248Mb)
Turner, W. C.; Estes, C. B. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1982)[more][less]
Abstract: In Oklahoma, industry consumes about 35% of the total energy consumed. While it is true that much work has been done in the larger companies, most small to medium sized companies have yet to undertake a substantial energy management program. Often they simply do not understand the savings possible or the techniques available. Recognizing this, a program was developed to acquaint Oklahoma industry with the potential savings allowable through energy management techniques. The program is entitled 'Oklahoma Industrial Energy; Management Program' and is located at Oklahoma State University. This paper describes past, on-going, and proposed activities of this Program and assesses their impact. Included are industrial energy management conferences, closed circuit television short courses on selected energy management topics, energy auditing, industrial energy audits (through the Oklahoma Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center) , energy and water management research, and two courses currently being offered.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-82-04-140.pdf (1.182Mb)
Turner, W. C.; Webb, R. E.; Phillips, J. M.; Viljoen, T. A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: The need for sound energy management is no longer worthy of debate. Action is necessary and much is being done by U.S. industry. Unfortunately, however, the majority of the work is being done by the few large energy intensive industries throughout the country. The average small to medium sized company has yet to undertake a dedicated program. The reasons are numerous, but often it is simply because of a lack of knowledge of techniques or the amount of savings possible. Recognizing this, the Oklahoma Department of Energy designed a program to acquaint Oklahoma industry with the potential savings available through energy management and some basic techniques. The program is entitled "Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program" and is housed at Oklahoma State University. The program is funded by the U. S. Department of Energy through the State Energy Conservation Plan. This paper describes the program offerings, impact to date and plans for the future. The program offerings basically include: 1. A series of tuition free Industrial Energy Management Conferences (over 20 given to date involving many Oklahoma industries). 2. A free energy newsletter entitled "Energy Channel" mailed to all participating Oklahoma industries. 3. A series of Energy Audit booklets including instructions and forms. 4. Technical aid on a limited basis. 5. A series of laboratory type experiments involving power factor, solar energy, boiler combustion improvement and other energy related projects. 6. Fact sheet publication as the need develops. Plans for the future include expansion of the program to small businesses in general through the Energy Extension Service and more technical aid to participating industries, The basic plan involving the services above shall remain intact. The program has been very successful to date. The results are directly transferable to other states and the program directors are willing to share information.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-75.pdf (1.460Mb)
Buehler, J. H. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper will discuss an Energy Audit conducted in 1976 on Union Carbide's Texas City No. 3 Olefins Ethylene Unit. Staffing, planning, and conduct of an Audit are reviewed. Project endorsement by the multifunctional Energy Audit Team is used to prioritize capital programs. The paper will describe several projects having possible application in other Olefin plants. Preparation and use of an Energy Curve reviewed. An Energy Index graph projects improvements to be achieved by implementation of a four-year $44 million capital program which resulted from the Audit. Reorganization of the Olefin unit technical staff to complete the energy conservation program is covered. Several techniques being used to insure operator and maintenance commitment to energy conservation are reviewed. The Texas City No. 3 Olefins Unit is an LPG based ethylene plant rated in excess of one billion pounds per year. Since start-up in 1968, energy costs have escalated by a factor of ten. The unit's current energy bill exceeds $45 million per year. Between 1972 and 1977 the Olefin plant conversion energy index increased by 40%. Concerned with rising fuel price and decreasing energy efficiency, management decided to conduct an Energy Audit on the Olefins Unit. This paper discusses the audit and implementation of the resulting conservation program. The paper is divided into four sections: I. The Energy Audit II. Energy Curve III. Energy Index and Energy Projects IV. Operating Department Organization
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-115.pdf (1.850Mb)
Muller, M. R.; Barnish, T.; Polomski, P. P. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1995)[more][less]
Abstract: A survey of 104 manufacturers has been carried out. Each plant had received an energy audit by an EADC at least 24 months prior to the study. The survey attempted to determine why certain recommendations made in the audit report were not implemented. Several interesting results were obtained. Of most importance is the observation that many of the companies eventually implemented recommendations which were initially rejected. Also, the acceptable simple payback for energy conserving measures varies inversely with yearly energy costs. Finally, a clear correlation between the level of training of plant personnel and the sophistication of solutions to energy problems is clearly demonstrated.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-95-04-25.pdf (4.402Mb)