Browsing Conference Proceedings by Title
Panjavan, S. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1989)[more][less]
Abstract: In early 1989, Central Power and Light Company received a request from the Coastal Corporation to wheel power from an affiliate (Coastal Refining) cogeneration facility to 28 remote installations owned by other affiliates. CPL then requested through Docket No. 8650 that the PUCT review the applicability of certain parts of the wheeling rules, and in April the Commission appointed a task force composed of representatives from affected industries, utilities, and regulatory staff to review the wheeling rules and suggest whether, or what, changes might be necessary. The task force expects to have final recommendations by the end of October.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-89-09-42.pdf (5.634Mb)
Muller, T.; Rehault, N.; Rist, T. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2013)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper describes the basics and first test results of a model based approach using qualitative modeling to perform Fault Detection and Diagnostics (FDD) on HVAC and R systems. A quantized system describing the qualitative behavior of a dynamical system is established by transforming numerical inputs into qualitative values or states. Then, the qualitative model is used to determine system-states or outputs that may occur in the future. The qualitative model determines the probability that a subsequent condition might occur. The model can then be used for FDD purposes by comparing the expected states of the faultless system with the occurring states of the real process. The paper presents the first results of the model, trained with measurement data of an air handling unit (AHU) heating coil. The authors plan to extend the model to further AHU components and to test them against real data to assess their performance for FDD and their economic viability in terms of engineering efforts and costs by comparing them with a rule-based FDD system. It is then planned to implement and test the models on several large HVAC and R systems operating at two major European airports in the framework of the FP7 European project CASCADE ICT for Energy Efficient Airports.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IC-13-10-29.pdf (665.2Kb)
Petzold, M. A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), June 1986)[more][less]
Abstract: Meeting the Quality of Work-Life goals often involves programs that greatly increase the need for energy, such as providing large quantities of ventilated air during the heating season. This requirement by itself would increase total energy use by 20%. This seems contradictory to the corporate goal of 2% actual energy reduction per year, for the period of 1985 through 1990. However, integration of several concepts and utilizing waste energy from available sources provides the opportunity to meet and exceed both goals in a cost effective manner, with an excellent payback. The presentation quantifies the excess energy available, the equipment to utilize the energy, and the cost, savings, and payback data. Of particular interest is that the requirement of a 250% ventilation increase is met, and yet an actual total plant energy decrease of 23% is obtained.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-86-06-92.pdf (914.5Kb)
Marchbanks, G. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1987)[more][less]
Abstract: Industries have added sensitive electrical loads such as computers and electronic equipment to improve efficiency, lower costs and to raise the overall quality of the product being manufactured. With this new technology there is a requirement for a quality of power that has not been available by the electric utility. Sensitive loads cannot tolerate electrical disturbances such as harmonic distortions, overvoltage, undervoltage, momentary interruptions and transients that are inherent in the utility distribution system. The industrial customer turns to the power supplier to provide technical support, monitoring and assistance to upgrade the quality of power into the plant. Even though studies have shown only 20% of the problems identified are actually utility generated it is the responsibility of the utility to help the customer isolate and solve the problem. The motto of the Oklahoma Gas and Electric Quality of Power program is "If a customer perceives he has a problem, we have a problem." The commitment has been made to assist the customer until he is satisfied the problem is in fact solved.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-87-09-68.pdf (900.3Kb)
Carpenter, K.; Kissock, J. K. (Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu); Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 2005)[more][less]
Abstract: On/off operation and excess combustion air reduce boiler energy efficiency. This paper presents methods to quantify energy savings from switching to modulation control mode and reducing excess air in natural gas fired boilers. The methods include calculation of combustion temperature, calculation of the relationship between internal convection coefficient and gas flow rate, and calculation of overall heat transfer assuming a parallel-flow heat exchanger model. The method for estimating savings from changing from on/off to modulation control accounts for purge and drift losses through the boiler and the improved heat transfer within the boiler due to the reduced combustion gas flow rate. The method for estimating savings from reducing excess combustion air accounts for the increased combustion temperature, reduced internal convection coefficient and increased residence time of combustion gasses in the boiler. Measured boiler data are used to demonstrate the accuracy of the methods.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-05-05-43.pdf (711.2Kb)
Seryak, J.; Epstein, G.; D'Antonio, M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2006)[more][less]
Clary, A. T. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2007)[more][less]
Abstract: In late 2004, Eastman Chemical Company’s Kingsport Site Utilities Division embarked on a project to investigate operations in one of the large refrigeration systems serving one of the process areas. The intent of this effort was to develop a methodical process to identify primarily behavioral or procedural opportunities to improve energy efficiency. A key component of this process was to put control plans in place to maintain any gains that were achieved. The project resulting in finding opportunities in both the supply an demand sides of the system that were worth on the order of 10% improvement in energy efficiency (MMBtu/klb produced). The project also developed control plans that included optimization routines to provide guidance for day to day operations.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-07-05-03.pdf (232.1Kb)
Matson, J. V. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: Many operators of cooling water systems do not have sufficient comprehension to be able to formulate the questions they should be asking their vendors and suppliers. The objective of this paper is to not only ask the most important questions, but address the answers.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-84-04-29.pdf (2.135Mb)
Larson, R. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1985)[more][less]
Brownawell, M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1989)[more][less]
Abstract: WHAT IS HUMIDITY? Humidity is water vapor in air. Water covers over two thirds of the earths surface. It affects everything we do in some way. Under normal atmospheric conditions water is the third largest component of air, but the amount of water in the air can vary widely. These factors make it very important to measure humidity in our environment. Because humidity has always been important many ways have developed to express the level of humidity. Probably the most common is the term RELATIVE HUMIDITY which is based on a combination of humidity and temperature. Terms based on humidity per unit weight or volume are PPM (parts per million), grains per pound, and others. Vapor pressure and dew point are measures of humidity alone. These are all terms used to quantify the question how humid is it?
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-89-09-14.pdf (7.503Mb)
Hayes, A. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1985)[more][less]
Abstract: The overall goal of the DOE Industrial Heat Pump Program is to foster research and development which will allow more efficient and economical recovery of waste energy in industry. Specifically, the program includes the identification of appropriate heat pump applications within the industrial sector and the subsequent development of heat pump technologies to meet the industrial requirements. The initial phases of the program were directed towards extending the technology of the more conventional heat pump systems, such as, Rankine and Brayton cycles so as to provide near-term results. In addition to system studies, material and component developmental programs were undertaken that would potentially result in enhanced performance and reduced costs. Research in more sophisticated and higher risk heat pump systems are being pursued on a longer term schedule. Novel mechanical systems, such as sterling cycles and magnetic heat pumps and advanced chemical systems, such as zeolite-water absorption cycles and heat of reaction systems are currently being investigated. This paper provides the program rationale and details the logic employed in designing a sound and cost-effective R&D program. A R&D flow diagram is structured with a series of major milestones or go/no go decision points. The paper traces the systematic progress of a technology from conception, through the various developmental phases until final prototype tests.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-85-05-86.pdf (1.175Mb)
Robison, J. H. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1998)[more][less]
Abstract: Radiance Services Company manages a new technology called the Radiance Process®, a dry non-toxic technology for surface cleaning. The Radiance Process received the National Pollution Prevention Roundtable's 1997 Most Valuable Pollution Prevention Award. It employs quantum mechanical effects of laser light and a flowing inert gas, ordinarily nitrogen, to clean surfaces. The light lifts the contaminant from the surface and the flowing gas sweeps it away. There is no pollution and no waste besides the removed contaminant itself. The Process is inexpensive and readily adaptable to many manufacturing products ranging from computer chips, hard disks, and night vision goggles to tire molds. The Process is covered by 29 patents issued in the U.S. and overseas and 189 patent applications pending internationally.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-98-04-41.pdf (2.090Mb)
Ober, D. G.; Volckhausen, T. W. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1988)[more][less]
Abstract: There is a limited data base on the full scale performance of radiant barrier insulation in attics. The performance of RBS have been shown to be dependent on attic ventilation characteristics. Tests have been conducted on a duplex located in Florida with soffit and ridge venting to measure attic performance. The unique features of these experiments are accurate and extensive instrumentation with heat flow meters, field verification of HFM calibration, extensive characterization of the installed ceiling insulation, ventilation rate measurements and extensive temperature instrumentation. The attics are designed to facilitate experimental changes without damaging the installed insulation. RBS performance has been measured for two natural ventilation levels for soffit and ridge venting. Previously, no full scale data have been developed for these test configurations. Test data for each of the test configurations was acquired for a minimum of two weeks with some acquired over a five week period. The Rl9 insulation performed as expected.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-88-09-27.pdf (530.7Kb)
Medina, M. A.; O'Neal, D. L.; Turner, W. D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), May 1992)[more][less]
Abstract: Results of winter experiments conducted in Central Texas are presented. The experiments were side-by-side tests using two identical 144 ft2 houses which responded similarly to weather variations prior to any retrofits. Two radiant barrier orientations were tested, horizontal barrier and barrier against the rafters, in vented and non-vented attics. The results compiled in this paper are for attics with R-19 fiberglass insulation. The data showed that radiant barriers were still effective during the winter season. During a typical day radiant barriers prevented approximately 9-17 percent of the indoor heat from escaping into the attic. No significant difference in moisture accumulation was detected in the attic with the radiant barrier.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-92-05-10.pdf (3.395Mb)
Raburn, R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1999)[more][less]
Abstract: Electro-Magnetic Energy has finally made its way into the Petro-Chemical market twenty-five years after market acceptance in the Food Processing Industry. Major factors influencing this change are tighter environmental regulations, price competition and increased production requirements. The main barriers are primarily due to perception of high costs and safety issues coupled with the fact that neither industry had a strategic reason to market their products to each other. The speed at which these changes can take place is impeded by the lack of industry information sharing brought on by the need to gain a competitive edge. These barriers are beginning to break down now that the Petro-Chemicals engineering and management are requiring their processes be reviewed to meet the challenges.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-99-05-21.pdf (3.301Mb)
Bachman, L. R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1985)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper describes evaporative spray roof cooling systems, their components, performance and applications in various climates and building types. The evolution of this indirect evaporative cooling technique is discussed. Psychrometric and sol-air principles are covered and a simplified method of evaluation presented. A life cycle energy savings example is discussed. Benefits of roof life and roof top equipment efficiency and maintenance are covered as well as water consumption and performance trade-offs with alternate methods of roof heat gain control. Testimonials and case studies are presented. The gradual migration of business, industry, and populace to the southern United States was largely brought on by the advent of the practical air-conditioner, cheap electricity, and the harshness of northern winters. But while "wintering at Palm Beach" has been replaced by "Sun Belt industries" ; the compression-refrigeration cooling cycle is about the only thing separating millions of southerners (native and adopted) from August heat stroke and the Detroit News employment ads. This migration has been spurred by economic recessions which hit harder at the competitively populated northern centers than at the still growing industries of the south. These trends are important illustrations of the concern for efficient cooling strategies. Not only are homes in hot climates vulnerable to the now not-so-low cost of electricity but large, compact. and heavily occupied buildings (offices, schools, hospitals, theaters, etc.) often must air-condition year-around. In 1968. air-conditioning was 3% of U.S. end energy consumption compared to 18% for space heating and 25% for transportation. By 1980, according to Electric Power Research Institute's Oliver Yu, air-conditioning use was 12.5% of all electricity generated and by the year 2000 is projected to reach 16.7% "as migration slows and the GNP reaches a stable 3% growth rate" (EPRI 1982 to 1986 Overview and Strategy). Of further significance is the effect of air-conditioning loads on the peak generating requirements of electrical utilities. Because utilities must build generating capacity to meet peak requirements, they normally charge a higher summer kWh rate (for residential) and levy a peak kW demand charge on a monthly or even annual "ratchet" rate (for larger service customers). The June '83 cover of Houston City Magazine, in reference to future electrical rates, promised: "Pay or Sweat". Typical of many cooling or heat gain prevention strategies being employed on "innovative" buildings in warm climates, evaporative spray roof cooling (ESRC) systems (not to be confused with roof ponds) are not new. Like ventilated structures, ice house roofs, enhanced ventilation, masonry walls, night sky radiation and ground contact cooling, evaporative cooling in many forms has been around for centuries. (See Solar Age, July '82 and February '81 for related articles). Even the development of roof spray systems is not as newly founded as one might suspect.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-85-09-31.pdf (746.2Kb)
Gunn, G. (Energy Systems Laboratory, 2011)[more][less]
Hnat, J. G.; Patten, J. S.; Sheth, P. R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1981)[more][less]
Abstract: Comparisons are made of the performance and installation costs of Rankine and Brayton power cycles when applied to waste heat recovery from a 350 ton/day container glass furnace. The power cycles investigation included: a) a conventional steam Rankine cycle, b) an organic Rankine cycle, c) an indirectly heated positive pressure Brayton cycle and d) a directly heated subatmospheric Brayton cycle. For the specified flue gas temperatures considered, the organic Rankine cycle produced the most electric power. If, however, reduction in fuel cost is of primary importance, then simple heat recuperation is the most effective method of heat recovery. Except for the subatmospheric Brayton cycle, typical payback periods are on the order of three to four years. The subatmospheric Brayton cycle was found not to be an attractive heat recovery alternative for this particular application.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-81-04-119.pdf (1.249Mb)
Chittum, A.; Kaufman, N. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 2009)[more][less]
Abstract: Combined Heat and Power (CHP) has been identified as a significant opportunity for greater energy efficiency and decreased environmental impacts of energy consumption. Despite this, the regulatory and policy landscape for CHP is often quite discouraging to the deployment of these systems, despite their many benefits to customers and society at large. That the landscape changes considerably from state to state only confuses the matter. Of all the various types of distributed generation, CHP systems encompass technologies particularly hard hit by policies and regulations that do not actively support their deployment. Given the large size of some CHP systems, interconnection standards that clearly delineate interconnection processes for multi-megawatt systems are necessary. In addition, since many CHP technologies emit incremental criteria pollutants as part of their operation, the manner in which emissions are regulated by a state can significantly impact the financial realities of running a CHP system. In the absence of strong federal guidance, interconnection standards, tax incentives, tariff designs, environmental regulations and other policy measures that dramatically impact the attractiveness of CHP projects can only be significantly addressed by state lawmakers and regulators. State activity is essential to creating a policy framework that encourages CHP. Within the past several years, a number of states have made significant strides in implementing more “CHP-friendly” policies. Some states have worked to develop these policies at an accelerated rate while others have done little. In many cases the difference between states that are proactively encouraging CHP and states that are ignoring it all together is stark. This paper will identify which states are leading the way, which states are following, and what the policies of all states look like at this current point in time. It will define what “CHP-friendly” policies are, what makes a good policy better, and discuss the manners in which a variety of states have chosen to approach CHP. CHP system developers will come away with a clearer picture of each state’s unique CHP barriers, potential CHP customers will understand how their current CHP climate compares to that of other locations, and state lawmakers and CHP advocates will be able to learn about best practices in policy creation that already exist in the field.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-09-05-14.pdf (422.7Kb)