Browsing Conference Proceedings by Title
Hayes, A. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1985)[more][less]
Abstract: The overall goal of the DOE Industrial Heat Pump Program is to foster research and development which will allow more efficient and economical recovery of waste energy in industry. Specifically, the program includes the identification of appropriate heat pump applications within the industrial sector and the subsequent development of heat pump technologies to meet the industrial requirements. The initial phases of the program were directed towards extending the technology of the more conventional heat pump systems, such as, Rankine and Brayton cycles so as to provide near-term results. In addition to system studies, material and component developmental programs were undertaken that would potentially result in enhanced performance and reduced costs. Research in more sophisticated and higher risk heat pump systems are being pursued on a longer term schedule. Novel mechanical systems, such as sterling cycles and magnetic heat pumps and advanced chemical systems, such as zeolite-water absorption cycles and heat of reaction systems are currently being investigated. This paper provides the program rationale and details the logic employed in designing a sound and cost-effective R&D program. A R&D flow diagram is structured with a series of major milestones or go/no go decision points. The paper traces the systematic progress of a technology from conception, through the various developmental phases until final prototype tests.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-85-05-86.pdf (1.175Mb)
Robison, J. H. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1998)[more][less]
Abstract: Radiance Services Company manages a new technology called the Radiance Process®, a dry non-toxic technology for surface cleaning. The Radiance Process received the National Pollution Prevention Roundtable's 1997 Most Valuable Pollution Prevention Award. It employs quantum mechanical effects of laser light and a flowing inert gas, ordinarily nitrogen, to clean surfaces. The light lifts the contaminant from the surface and the flowing gas sweeps it away. There is no pollution and no waste besides the removed contaminant itself. The Process is inexpensive and readily adaptable to many manufacturing products ranging from computer chips, hard disks, and night vision goggles to tire molds. The Process is covered by 29 patents issued in the U.S. and overseas and 189 patent applications pending internationally.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-98-04-41.pdf (2.090Mb)
Ober, D. G.; Volckhausen, T. W. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1988)[more][less]
Abstract: There is a limited data base on the full scale performance of radiant barrier insulation in attics. The performance of RBS have been shown to be dependent on attic ventilation characteristics. Tests have been conducted on a duplex located in Florida with soffit and ridge venting to measure attic performance. The unique features of these experiments are accurate and extensive instrumentation with heat flow meters, field verification of HFM calibration, extensive characterization of the installed ceiling insulation, ventilation rate measurements and extensive temperature instrumentation. The attics are designed to facilitate experimental changes without damaging the installed insulation. RBS performance has been measured for two natural ventilation levels for soffit and ridge venting. Previously, no full scale data have been developed for these test configurations. Test data for each of the test configurations was acquired for a minimum of two weeks with some acquired over a five week period. The Rl9 insulation performed as expected.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-88-09-27.pdf (530.7Kb)
Medina, M. A.; O'Neal, D. L.; Turner, W. D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), May 1992)[more][less]
Abstract: Results of winter experiments conducted in Central Texas are presented. The experiments were side-by-side tests using two identical 144 ft2 houses which responded similarly to weather variations prior to any retrofits. Two radiant barrier orientations were tested, horizontal barrier and barrier against the rafters, in vented and non-vented attics. The results compiled in this paper are for attics with R-19 fiberglass insulation. The data showed that radiant barriers were still effective during the winter season. During a typical day radiant barriers prevented approximately 9-17 percent of the indoor heat from escaping into the attic. No significant difference in moisture accumulation was detected in the attic with the radiant barrier.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-92-05-10.pdf (3.395Mb)
Raburn, R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1999)[more][less]
Abstract: Electro-Magnetic Energy has finally made its way into the Petro-Chemical market twenty-five years after market acceptance in the Food Processing Industry. Major factors influencing this change are tighter environmental regulations, price competition and increased production requirements. The main barriers are primarily due to perception of high costs and safety issues coupled with the fact that neither industry had a strategic reason to market their products to each other. The speed at which these changes can take place is impeded by the lack of industry information sharing brought on by the need to gain a competitive edge. These barriers are beginning to break down now that the Petro-Chemicals engineering and management are requiring their processes be reviewed to meet the challenges.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-99-05-21.pdf (3.301Mb)
Bachman, L. R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1985)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper describes evaporative spray roof cooling systems, their components, performance and applications in various climates and building types. The evolution of this indirect evaporative cooling technique is discussed. Psychrometric and sol-air principles are covered and a simplified method of evaluation presented. A life cycle energy savings example is discussed. Benefits of roof life and roof top equipment efficiency and maintenance are covered as well as water consumption and performance trade-offs with alternate methods of roof heat gain control. Testimonials and case studies are presented. The gradual migration of business, industry, and populace to the southern United States was largely brought on by the advent of the practical air-conditioner, cheap electricity, and the harshness of northern winters. But while "wintering at Palm Beach" has been replaced by "Sun Belt industries" ; the compression-refrigeration cooling cycle is about the only thing separating millions of southerners (native and adopted) from August heat stroke and the Detroit News employment ads. This migration has been spurred by economic recessions which hit harder at the competitively populated northern centers than at the still growing industries of the south. These trends are important illustrations of the concern for efficient cooling strategies. Not only are homes in hot climates vulnerable to the now not-so-low cost of electricity but large, compact. and heavily occupied buildings (offices, schools, hospitals, theaters, etc.) often must air-condition year-around. In 1968. air-conditioning was 3% of U.S. end energy consumption compared to 18% for space heating and 25% for transportation. By 1980, according to Electric Power Research Institute's Oliver Yu, air-conditioning use was 12.5% of all electricity generated and by the year 2000 is projected to reach 16.7% "as migration slows and the GNP reaches a stable 3% growth rate" (EPRI 1982 to 1986 Overview and Strategy). Of further significance is the effect of air-conditioning loads on the peak generating requirements of electrical utilities. Because utilities must build generating capacity to meet peak requirements, they normally charge a higher summer kWh rate (for residential) and levy a peak kW demand charge on a monthly or even annual "ratchet" rate (for larger service customers). The June '83 cover of Houston City Magazine, in reference to future electrical rates, promised: "Pay or Sweat". Typical of many cooling or heat gain prevention strategies being employed on "innovative" buildings in warm climates, evaporative spray roof cooling (ESRC) systems (not to be confused with roof ponds) are not new. Like ventilated structures, ice house roofs, enhanced ventilation, masonry walls, night sky radiation and ground contact cooling, evaporative cooling in many forms has been around for centuries. (See Solar Age, July '82 and February '81 for related articles). Even the development of roof spray systems is not as newly founded as one might suspect.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-85-09-31.pdf (746.2Kb)
Gunn, G. (Energy Systems Laboratory, 2011)[more][less]
Hnat, J. G.; Patten, J. S.; Sheth, P. R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1981)[more][less]
Abstract: Comparisons are made of the performance and installation costs of Rankine and Brayton power cycles when applied to waste heat recovery from a 350 ton/day container glass furnace. The power cycles investigation included: a) a conventional steam Rankine cycle, b) an organic Rankine cycle, c) an indirectly heated positive pressure Brayton cycle and d) a directly heated subatmospheric Brayton cycle. For the specified flue gas temperatures considered, the organic Rankine cycle produced the most electric power. If, however, reduction in fuel cost is of primary importance, then simple heat recuperation is the most effective method of heat recovery. Except for the subatmospheric Brayton cycle, typical payback periods are on the order of three to four years. The subatmospheric Brayton cycle was found not to be an attractive heat recovery alternative for this particular application.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-81-04-119.pdf (1.249Mb)
Chittum, A.; Kaufman, N. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 2009)[more][less]
Abstract: Combined Heat and Power (CHP) has been identified as a significant opportunity for greater energy efficiency and decreased environmental impacts of energy consumption. Despite this, the regulatory and policy landscape for CHP is often quite discouraging to the deployment of these systems, despite their many benefits to customers and society at large. That the landscape changes considerably from state to state only confuses the matter. Of all the various types of distributed generation, CHP systems encompass technologies particularly hard hit by policies and regulations that do not actively support their deployment. Given the large size of some CHP systems, interconnection standards that clearly delineate interconnection processes for multi-megawatt systems are necessary. In addition, since many CHP technologies emit incremental criteria pollutants as part of their operation, the manner in which emissions are regulated by a state can significantly impact the financial realities of running a CHP system. In the absence of strong federal guidance, interconnection standards, tax incentives, tariff designs, environmental regulations and other policy measures that dramatically impact the attractiveness of CHP projects can only be significantly addressed by state lawmakers and regulators. State activity is essential to creating a policy framework that encourages CHP. Within the past several years, a number of states have made significant strides in implementing more “CHP-friendly” policies. Some states have worked to develop these policies at an accelerated rate while others have done little. In many cases the difference between states that are proactively encouraging CHP and states that are ignoring it all together is stark. This paper will identify which states are leading the way, which states are following, and what the policies of all states look like at this current point in time. It will define what “CHP-friendly” policies are, what makes a good policy better, and discuss the manners in which a variety of states have chosen to approach CHP. CHP system developers will come away with a clearer picture of each state’s unique CHP barriers, potential CHP customers will understand how their current CHP climate compares to that of other locations, and state lawmakers and CHP advocates will be able to learn about best practices in policy creation that already exist in the field.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-09-05-14.pdf (422.7Kb)
Marsh, G. M.; Milewits, M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: Until the present there has been no effective way to rapidly scan thermally insulated refinery or process piping for corrosion or thin wall. Such defects, if left unattended, can lead to wasteful losses of time, energy and money. To date the most common means of locating such defects has been random spot measurement of suspect regions using ultrasonic or radiographic techniques. The obvious weakness of such an approach is the low probability of selecting the region of most severe corrosion in a long expanse of insulated piping. PA Incorporated has developed an electromagnetic inspection device which rapidly scans nearly 100 percent of an insulated pipeline (flanges and tees excluded) and provides a quantitative (2 percent) measurement of average wall thickness and qualitative evaluation of external and internal corrosion. The value of the device lies in its ability to quickly locate major problem areas through thermal insulation which can then be examined in more detail by removing insulation and using other techniques. This paper describes the device, the inspection results to date, and the unique advantages of this new inspection tool.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-84-04-18.pdf (2.951Mb)
Prengle, H. W. Jr.; Golden, S. A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper considers three related questions: 1) What are the primary economic driving forces which determine the rate of industrial energy conservation? 2) How much industrial energy conservation has been achieved over 1972-1973 levels? 3) What are the goals and expectations for decreases in industrial energy use during the next 10-20 years? The specific energy consumption (SEC) of a plant or industry, measured in BTU of fuel used/ton of product produced, can be used to monitor the energy conserved. The rate of SEC reduction is a function of five primary variables: the potential for reduction of the SEC, the unit cost of fuel, the capital available for implementation of conservation measures, the quantity of fuel available, and the availability: of equipment to implement needed conservation measures. A mathematical-economic model is proposed for the decrease in energy use, and permits calculation of dollars saved also. Conclusions from the study are: 1) Potential savings were estimated as 20-31% of 1972 levels; through 1978 a 13-20% actual reduction in energy use has been achieved. 2) The additional can be realized by; 1982 by "strong action", or by 1987 by "moderate action". To date moderate action has been taken. 3) Overall energy conservation pays out rapidly - dollars saved return dollars invested many fold!
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-103.pdf (1.312Mb)
Domanski, P. A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1988)[more][less]
Abstract: A methodology is presented for rating the performance of mixed, split residential air conditioners. The method accounts for the impact on system performance of the indoor evaporator, expansion device and fan; three major components that are likely to be substituted for the matched components in a mixed system. The method allows calculation of capacity at 95°F rating point and seasonal energy efficiency ratio, SEER, without performing laboratory test of the complete system. Limitations of the procedure, present work, and anticipated improvements are also discussed.
Files in this item: 1ESL-HH-88-09-18.pdf (650.4Kb)
Trabachino, C.; Muller, M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 2002)[more][less]
Abstract: Through its Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy, the US DOE's Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) seeks to develop and deploy advanced technologies and practices that will increase energy efficiency, environmental performance, and productivity for manufacturers in nine energy-intensive and waste-intensive industries. OIT helps establish state IOF Partnerships in order to expand the benefits of the national IOF strategy to many manufacturers on the local level. By supporting an IOF Partnership, states mitigate factors that inhibit effective response to challenges faced by their industries and also provide a coordinated framework for state-level industrial programs. The state optimizes its intellectual capital by coordinating efforts of universities, industrial leaders and state officials. The resulting benefits are especially evident in the areas of environmental policy and economic development.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-02-04-03.pdf (3.608Mb)
Andre, P.; Silva, C. A.; Fonseca, N.; Hannay, J.; Lebrun, J.; Lacote, P. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2004)[more][less]
Abstract: Three years after its start up, the building considered here is not yet providing a satisfactory comfort to its occupants. Too cold and too hot environmental conditions were too often encountered in different occupied zones, mainly in midseason and in summertime. The execution of a re- commissioning process would support in resolving these problems. Previous verifications allowed us to confirm that almost all HVAC components considered are technically “correct” and that almost all problems are coming from mistakes committed when installing and tuning these components. The re-commissioning presented in this paper is based on both calculation and experimental data.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IC-04-10-39.pdf (428.7Kb)
Andre, P.; Cuevas, C.; Lacote, P.; Lebrun, J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2003)[more][less]
Abstract: Commissioning is a unique opportunity, for all partners concerned, to learn a lot about the real behavior of a HVAC system. It has to start from comfort and health requirements in occupancy zones, and going back to the plant through the whole air conditioning system. Focus is given here to the so-called “recommissioning” and the proposed principles are illustrated by reference to a specific case study: the “CAMET” building. The "CA-MET" is a new ministry office building, designed for an occupancy of about 1000 people and located in the city of Namur, in Belgium. The building is cooled, thanks to a VAV/CAV system. Heating is provided independently by a classical hydronic radiator system. By lack of time, here as usually, the HVAC initial commissioning was done in a hurry And, as soon as starting his job, the manager received a fair amount of complaints from the building occupants. The building was selected as a "good" case study to illustrate the work developed in the frame of the IEA-ECBCS "annex 40" project This paper is presenting the methodology used in the first re-commissioning phase, some examples of results and also some general recommendations.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IC-03-10-15.pdf (594.4Kb)
Bhatia, P.; Kozman, T. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2004)[more][less]
Abstract: When steam transfers its heat in a manufacturing process or heat exchanger, it may revert to a liquid phase called condensate. This paper presents a method to help certain manufacturing and petro-chemical companies to save energy costs by returning their
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-04-04-02.pdf (592.6Kb)
Childress, R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1999)[more][less]
Abstract: A Tie Line Control System maintains the purchase quantity of electrical energy an industrial facility buys from a utility company. Implementing an advanced Tie Line Control system automates the buy versus make decision process for an industrial facility in order to optimize the use of energy by either a supply-side method or a demand-side method. If a facility possesses supply-side resources, such as self-generation, the user can choose to maximize on-site energy generation, when it is less expensive than the price offered by the utility. Conversely, when the price to buy energy is less expensive than it is to produce it, a facility may choose to back off on self-generation and buy more energy. One such Advanced Tie Line Control system, designed by Automation Applications, Incorporated (AAI) and installed at a pilot facility, utilizes a real-time pricing utility contract and provides savings approaching one million dollars per year. This paper is a case study of this system implementation and the results achieved.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-99-05-17.pdf (3.773Mb)