Browsing IETC - Industrial Energy Technology Conference by Title
Fiorino, D. P.; Priest, J. W. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1987)[more][less]
Abstract: Control strategies for plant engineering systems are a contemporary research topic of great interest. Their purpose is to provide control that adapts to changes in demand and other operating conditions in order to operate the system at maximum efficiency at all times. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports research on control models for energy-intensive industrial processes. Likewise, the National Science Foundation (NSF) recognizes the need to develop control algorithms for plant heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. In this research paper, a control algorithm was developed to select the optimal sequence of central refrigeration equipment (chillers, cooling towers, pumps) to operate in an industrial plant. The control algorithm adapts the optimal equipment sequence to reflect changes in the plant's cooling load and outside air conditions and it insures that the central refrigeration system operates with the lowest possible energy cost at all times.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-87-09-29.pdf (1.392Mb)
Enjeti, P. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1997)[more][less]
Abstract: Adjustable speed AC drives have become the preferred choice in many industrial applications where controlled speed is required. At the same time, the maturing of the technology and the availability of fast and efficient solid state power semiconductor switches (IGBTs) has resulted in voltage source, PWM controlled inverters becoming a standard configuration in the power range to 500kW. While high frequency PWM control represents the most advanced drive concept, when inappropriately applied, it generates side effects, some which have been recognized only recently. This paper presents a comprehensive coverage of application issues of PWM inverter controlled ac motor drives which include damage to motor insulation due to reflected voltages caused by long motor leads, electromagnetic interference, the mechanism of motor bearing failures due to electrostatic discharge leakage currents to ground, and poor total harmonic distortion (THD) of utility line currents. Following a description of the problems, several practical solutions are also presented and analyzed. Finally, line harmonic problems caused by the input diode rectifier are also described and some low cost solutions selected to meet IEEE 519-1992 are presented.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-97-04-37.pdf (4.284Mb)
Poole, J. N. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1989)[more][less]
Abstract: Electric motors are significant users of electricity in the United States. Approximately 66 percent of the total electricity in the U.S. is used by electric motors. Electronic adjustable speed drives (ASDs) can save energy, lower maintenance cost and improve product quality. By providing a variable frequency output to ac motors the speed of the motors can be controlled and matched to the process requirements. The benefits that may be derived from using ASDs are described and the type of ASDs, applications and specific case studies of ASD installations are also discussed.
Files in this item: 2ESL-IE-89-09-04.pdf (7.420Mb)(more files)
Jarc, D. A.; Robechek, J. D.; Connors, D. P. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1982)[more][less]
Abstract: Centrifugal pumps are generally sized to operate at or near the best efficiency point at maximum flow. The maximum flow requirements, however, frequently occur for a very short period during the operating cycle with the result that some method of flow control is required. The traditional approach to flow control has used valves which increase system pressure and inherently waste energy and generally cause the pump to operate at reduced efficiencies. Adjustable speed drives can achieve reduced flow by providing adjustable speed pump operation. This results in reduced system pressure and operation near the pump's Best Efficiency Point (BEP). In addition, maintenance costs might be reduced. This paper will discuss the energy savings potential of adjustable speed A-C drives followed by a brief description of the operation and relative benefits of different types of solid-state A-C drive types.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-82-04-109.pdf (1.118Mb)
Foley, D. J.; Chodorowski, A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), March 1993)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper describes applications and incentives for the use of variable frequency drivers (VFD) in the petroleum refining, petrochemical, and chemical industries. VFDs are a particular type of adjustable speed driver (ASD) found prevalently in these industries. Installations work best where both an energy efficiency improvement and a process control function can be accomplished with the same installation. Although these applications are quite familiar to mechanical and electrical engineers, they are still considered new technology among chemical and process engineers. Therefore, a significant amount of education is required to overcome natural resistance to these new "black box" systems. A survey conducted of VFD equipment suppliers, users, and others revealed that properly designed installations can accomplish the advertised energy savings while simultaneously realizing incentives for process control, product quality control, reduced maintenance, and others.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-93-03-24.pdf (4.510Mb)
Hickok, H. N. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1985)[more][less]
Abstract: Petroleum and chemical plants of today are effectively cutting energy losses in their plants thermally, electrically, and mechanically in their process equipment. In rotating process equipment such as pumps, fans, compressors, and blowers, much mechanical or fluid energy is being dissipated or thrown away by throttling valves, dampers, and adjustable guide vanes. Adjustable speed is an increasingly used feature in the search to find energy losses and reduce them. The paper reviews fluid mechanics in lay terms in an effort to illustrate where losses may be found and how to determine how much may be saved by retrofitting to or using adjustable speed. It also discusses other potential ways that adjustable speed may be typically used for process savings.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-85-05-83.pdf (607.7Kb)
Joshi, S.; Humphrey, J. L.; Fair, J. R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), June 1986)[more][less]
Abstract: Removal of small amounts of water from organic liquids is normally handled by adsorption or by azeotropic distillation. The latter method is well documented and analysis or design is straightforward so long as the azeotrope is properly defined. The former method, adsorption, is not well documented or understood even though it is practiced fairly extensively. The purpose of this paper is to review the state-of-the-art on adsorptive drying of liquid organics having limited water solubility and to make appropriate comparisons with the distillation method. A few other drying methods will also be discussed. Included in the presentation will be information on the determination of adsorption isotherms and the modeling of adsorption kinetics. A description of an experimental program at The University of Texas at Austin will also be given.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-86-06-27.pdf (1.480Mb)
Ferri, J. L. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1988)[more][less]
Abstract: When recuperators are installed on industrial furnaces, burners and ratio control systems must continue to operate reliably under a wider range of conditions. Most currently available hot air burners use dilution air to prevent fuel decomposition and internal damage. Ratio control systems which operate properly are complicated and economically unjustifiable. This paper details the development and operation of the GTE ceramic burners and an inexpensive ratio control device for preheated air systems called the Temperature Compensator. This work was possible through funding from the Gas Research Institute (GRI).
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-88-09-52.pdf (1.002Mb)
Kirol, L. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1987)[more][less]
Abstract: Chemical heat pumps utilizing liquid-vapor reactions can be configured in forms analogous to electric drive vapor-compression heat pumps and heat activated absorption heat pumps. Basic thermodynamic considerations eliminate some heat pumps and place restrictive working fluid requirements on others, but two thermodynamically feasible systems have significant potential advantage over conventional technology. An electric drive reactive heat pump can use smaller heat exchangers and compressor than a vapor-compression machine, and have more flexible operating characteristics. A waste heat driven heat pump (temperature amplifier) using liquid-vapor chemical reactions- can operate with higher coefficient of performance and smaller heat exchangers than an absorption temperature amplifying heat pump. Higher temperatures and larger temperature lifts should also be possible.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-87-09-25.pdf (1.438Mb)
Hinson, F.; Curtin, D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1988)[more][less]
Abstract: The performance of cogeneration power plants can now be assessed on line in real time using a distributed microprocessor-based data acquisition and control system. A representative implementation is described for cogeneration power in a food processing plant. The COPA (COgeneration Performance Assessment) package comprises separate, distributed control modules for data input, performance analysis for each plant device, overall plant performance summary, and operator displays. Performance of each of the respective cogeneration devices is assessed relative to a performance model of the device, thus an accurate assessment of performance is provided under all load conditions. Operator displays provide real time depiction of the performance of each device and the overall plant performance. Deterioration of performance of a device is quantified in terms of the cost of additional fuel requirements and/or the value of power not produced.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-88-09-42.pdf (2.210Mb)
Cutler, C. R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1981)[more][less]
Abstract: A process computer is a powerful tool for maximizing the use of energy and raw materials. Advanced computer control techniques are evolving which facilitate the recovery of energy by predictive control techniques. One such technique is Dynamic Matrix Control that has been used successfully by Shell for several years. A brief description of the technique will be given and an illustration of its feed forward capabilities to compensate for load and soot blowing disturbances on a complex furnace will be presented.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-81-04-51.pdf (1.079Mb)
Vold, P.; Gabel, S.; Carmichael, L.; Curtner, K.; Cirillo, N. C. Jr. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1997)[more][less]
Abstract: An integrated solution to control compressed air systems has been developed which significantly improves the quality of the compressed air, while decreasing operating expenses. Honeywell's XCEED™ compressed air system solution has been installed at a Goulds Pumps manufacturing plant in Seneca Falls, New York, and is currently undergoing field testing. The compressed air system will optimize the energy efficiency of the 7 compressor system (1,850hp) at Goulds, while reducing system pressure swings from 21 to 1 psig. The compressed air management system is expected to reduce energy consumption by 3,070,208 kWh annually, and reduce electrical demand by 509 kW. Annual compressed air system operating costs are expected to be reduced by 50%.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-97-04-28.pdf (4.473Mb)
Woinsky, S. G. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 2001)[more][less]
Abstract: EPRI has provided proposal preparation assistance and offered cost share funding assistance for two projects proposed in 2000. EPRI is highly interested, since this technology is applicable in all distillation systems, and since it will increase electric load in capacity increase revamps, probably the best economic targets in the U.S., since capital savings are best here. The approach can typically reduce energy use requirements, cooling (water) requirements, and environmental emissions per pound of distillate by 50%, while substantially reducing capital requirements for capacity increase revamps and new construction. If just 20% of all U.S. distillation were revamped by this approach as apposed to conventional, about 5x10^14 BTUs per year in energy use could be avoided, while increasing production by about 20%. Both the proposed petroleum refining (not awarded) and chemical industry programs and participants are described. As of this writing (1/31/01), chemical industry award selections have not yet been made.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-01-05-32.pdf (3.603Mb)
Peterson, G. R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1988)[more][less]
Abstract: The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Programs, has sponsored the development of a Fluidized Bed Waste Heat Recovery System (FBWHRS) and a higher temperature variant, the Ceramic Tubular Distributor Plate (CTDP) Fluidized Bed Heat Exchanger (FBHX) system. Both systems recover energy from high-temperature flue gases and produce steam. In a one-year evaluation test on an aluminum remelt furnace, the FBWHRS generated about 26 million lb of saturated steam at 150 psig. Before entering the FBWHRS, the flue gases were diluted to 1100°F to protect the fluidized bed distributor plate. In a second project, this FBWHRS concept was further developed by replacing the metallic distributor plate with a Ceramic Tubular Distributor Plate (CTDP), a closely spaced row of alumina rods. The ceramic unit permitted energy from flue gases to be recovered without diluting gases. Elimination of the air diluent system reduced the FBHX fluidized bed volume by 70% and increased heat recovery by 30%. Both systems offer several advantages. The fluidized bed particles enhance heat transfer and continually clean the finned tubes in the fluidized beds. Also, only the distributor plate is exposed to the hot fouling and corrosive flue gases since the fluidized bed quickly cools these gases to a uniform 500°F.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-88-09-29.pdf (931.3Kb)
Mills, J. I.; Chappell, R. N. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1985)[more][less]
Abstract: The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Industrial Programs (OIP), is responsible for the development of methods, systems, and processes that are more energy efficient and/or will displace scarce fuels with more abundant fuels. To this end, advanced chemical and mechanical heat pump technologies are being developed for industrial application. Determining which technologies are appropriate for particular industrial applications and then developing those technologies is a stepped process which takes into account the relative potential economic and thermodynamic advantages and applicability of a proposed technology. Currently, five advanced mechanical heat pump technologies are at various stages of this stepped development strategy including: (a) a waste heat-powered steam-compression system, (b) a high-temperature reverse Rankine cycle heat pump with methanol working fluid, (c) a Brayton cycle solvent recovery system, (d) magnetic cycle heat pumps, and (e) Stirling cycle heat pumps. This paper discusses these five advanced mechanical heat pump systems and how the development strategy allows efficient progression from concept to technology transfer to the private sector.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-85-05-88.pdf (1.348Mb)
Hart, J. R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), April 1992)[more][less]
Abstract: The composition of effluent from various pulping processes can exhibit a wide range of physical and chemical parameters. The dissolved solids consist of the chemicals derived from the wood material plus the chemicals added to the specific pulping process. No one technology can adequately treat these effluent streams, rather a combination of treatment methods is often required. Advanced oxidation is one technology which has application to bleached Kraft pulp effluent, principally for color reduction.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-92-04-30.pdf (2.340Mb)
Miller, J. G. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1985)[more][less]
Abstract: Boiler trim control, when it has been used at all, has been accomplished by the use of oxygen sensors. However, the oxygen sensor has limitation because it provides a fixed point on the sensible heat loss curve. A better way is to measure the fuel loss and the sensible heat loss. In this way the development of a practical, in stack, monitoring system for fuel loss was accelerated by the rapid increase in cost following the 1982 OPEC crisis. Based on analyzing the results of 250 installations, we can define the applications that can best benefit from multivariable trim control.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-85-05-65.pdf (945.8Kb)
Krill, W. V.; Minden, A. C.; Donaldson, L. W. Jr. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1987)[more][less]
Abstract: Alzeta Corporation has developed various process heating applications using the Pyrocore burner. Applications to immersion fluid heating have been in use for several years. An advanced process heater is also being developed. These processes take advantage of the uniform radiant heating feature of the burner to produce compact, efficient equipment. In addition, the burner provides very low NOx emissions and none of the aerodynamic combustion noise associated with conventional flame burners. This paper describes these two applications: 1) firetube immersion heaters and 2) an advanced process heater to be installed at an oil reprocessing facility in Newark, California.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-87-09-19.pdf (1.147Mb)
Morrison, R.; Hilder, S. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2004)[more][less]
Abstract: This case study describes the application of advanced regulatory and supervisory controls to powerhouse operations at a large pulp mill in central British Columbia. Substantial reductions in mill operating costs were achieved by actively managing boiler a
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-04-04-06.pdf (643.0Kb)
Robinson, J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1999)[more][less]
Abstract: Advanced Process Management is a method to achieve optimum process performance during the life cycle of a plant through proper design, effective automation, and adequate operator decision support. Developing a quality process model is an effective method to achieve advanced process management. The benefit of this method for ongoing process operations, system design, control strategy development, systems test, operator simulators, and on-line support tools is substantially lower operating costs including ROI for existing Power Islands in excess of 200%, often greater. On new capital projects it is not unreasonable to expect start-up time reductions of 33% and cost avoidance of process and control rework caused by design errors or omissions.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-99-05-18.pdf (5.027Mb)