Browsing IETC - Industrial Energy Technology Conference by Title
Erickson, D. C.; Davidson, W. F. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: The absorption cycle offers one of the most economic and widely applicable technologies for waste heat upgrading. It can use off-the-shelf hardware that is available now, at any required capacity rating. Fractional distillations, as a class of applications, embody characteristics that inherently make them economic candidates for absorption cycle heat upgrading. Practical applications to current U.S. distillations could save 30 trillion BTU per year, at payback periods ranging from 1 to 3 years. So, if the absorption cycle is so great, why isn't it more in use? There are three reasons: (1) lack of understanding of the basic principles and operation; (2) lack of guidelines for readily identifying attractive applications, and (3) lack of a commercial U.S. demonstration in the highly cost-effective distillation area. This paper presents absorption cycle fundamentals and applications guidelines, and announces a government-backed search for a site for commercial demonstration of the distillation energy savings. The guidelines provide a new tool for identifying attractive absorption cycle applications. They require only knowledge of process source and sink temperatures, and they show at a glance approximate component characteristics and payback period for the absorption cycle which would serve the application.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-84-04-116.pdf (6.153Mb)
Davis, R. C. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1985)[more][less]
Abstract: The concept of a thermal powered absorption heat pump is not a new or revolutionary idea. It has been successfully demonstrated in the lab and prototypes have been installed in the field. Units have been successfully applied in a number of industrial and commercial installations. Even more has been written about absorption heat pumping and many presentations have been made at energy symposiums and technical seminars. In fact, there have been more written and spoken words about absorption heat pumping than actual field installations. If absorption heat pumping is so great, then why haven’t more end users elected to take advantage of the benefits of absorption heat pumping? In this paper we will look at various types of absorption heat pumping and the associated economics and performance characteristics. We will also discuss some possible reasons why the absorption heat pumping concept, which looks great on paper, has yet to find a sustained niche in the industrial marketplace. And lastly, we will discuss some possible steps that could be taken by all parties to make absorption heat pumping a truly visible and viable alternative for conserving energy and reducing energy costs.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-85-05-118.pdf (1.167Mb)
Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1982)[more][less]
Abstract: When the heat source available to a distillation process is at a significantly higher temperature than the reboiler temperature, there is unused availability (ability to perform work) in the heat supplied to the reboiler. Similarly, if the reflux condenser operates above ambient temperature, the rejected heat also contains unused availability. By incorporating an absorption heat pump (AHP) into the distillation process, these sources of unused availability can be tapped so as to recycle (and hence, conserve) up to 50% of the required distillation energy. In contrast to compressor driven heat pumps, this savings is accomplished without need for a separate substantial input of mechanical power. A different AHP configuration is used depending on whether the excess availability is in the source heat or reject heat. In the excessive source temperature case, the higher temperature source heat is applied to the AHP, which then supplies the total reboiler requirement and recycles half the reject heat, with the remainder being rejected conventionally. In the excessive reject temperature case, all the reject heat is supplied to a reverse absorption heat pump (HAHP) which recycles half to reboiler temperature while reducing the remainder to ambient temperature.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-82-04-127.pdf (1.323Mb)
Grant, G. H. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), June 1986)[more][less]
Abstract: Energy management is dependent on the ability to accurately measure all energy sources so controls can take place. A survey fifteen years ago in Great Britian showed that the primary elements used for flow measurement of steam and gases were square law devices, with limited turndown and high sensitivity to velocity profile. This showed the need for a primary device able to give accurate readings over a wide turndown; long life handling hostile fluids; presenting the fewest possible installation problems. A variable differential pressure device producing a differential directly proportional to flow rate is the result.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-86-06-99.pdf (979.3Kb)
Hosseini, S.; Rusnak, J. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1987)[more][less]
Abstract: Heat flow measurement is a complex and sensitive discipline. It requires a thorough understanding of the available technology as well as a practical knowledge of the process and the fluid being measured. Accurate heat flow measurement is often an important criterion in facilities that distribute thermal energy. This paper describes the concepts and principles involved in achieving accurate measurements of heat flow.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-87-09-32.pdf (1.166Mb)
Achieving A Long Term Business Impact by Improving the Energy Effectiveness and Reliability of Electric MotorsWhelan, C. D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1997)[more][less]
Abstract: Over 100,000 electric motors drive the production equipment throughout a large chemical company. The energy-efficiency and reliability of these motors during their entire life have a decided impact on the company's manufacturing costs and production capability. The Corporate Motor Technology Team (CMTT) conceived and led a program to optimize the cost effectiveness and reliability of new motors and developed criteria to determine whether to repair or replace motors that fail. The higher energy efficiency of the electric motors offered by vendors today plays a crucial role in these decisions. The company's current motor specification, procurement, maintenance, repair and replacement practices are vastly improved and consistent across the corporation. The 1995 savings attributed to the higher energy efficiency of over 2000 motors installed the prior year amount to $570,000 and will continue to accrue year after year. So will the savings stemming from lower maintenance cost and reduced downtime.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-97-04-10.pdf (2.492Mb)
Kraly, K. F. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1999)[more][less]
Abstract: Cosmair's Clark Manufacturing Facility joined the Climate Wise program, a voluntary industrial energy efficiency program sponsored by the US EPA, to support its commitment to energy conservation excellence and total environmental awareness, while emphasizing strong quality programs and improved productivity. A comprehensive energy efficiency and pollution prevention program undertaken over the past decade, including boiler updates, computerized energy management, solid waste minimization, lighting improvements, and motor efficiency gains, is anticipated to save Cosmair almost $2.5 million and prevent 26.7 thousand metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions by the year 2000. Cosmair has worked to share its experiences through the facilitation of peer exchange endeavors, encouragement of affiliated companies to commit to carbon emission reductions through the Climate Wise program, and extensive involvement in community outreach activities.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-99-05-14.pdf (2.373Mb)
Weisenthal, M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1981)[more][less]
Abstract: You're all here because energy conservation has become a major concern for your companies. You're here to be better informed on the options available to you through new concepts and techniques useful in reducing the amount of energy it takes to produce your products. This paper is presents to help you present your program of energy conservation to all of your company employees, so they too will be able to become involved in doing something about utilizing energy more effectively. This paper is to show you how you can create an awareness program concerning your energy needs, that will get through to your employees and encourage more positive participation on their part.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-81-04-43.pdf (1.176Mb)
Ferland, K. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2010)[more][less]
Abstract: Ms. Ferland will be presenting the plant energy-efficiency certification program developed by the US Council for Energy Efficiency Manufacturing over the last two years. The foundation of the program is the proposed ISO 50001 standard on energy management. Superior Energy Performance combines an outcome based approach (energy intensity improvement) with a commitment to continual improvement (conformance with the ISO standard). The program is now in the demonstration phase in a number of states.
Files in this item: 2ESL-IE-10-05-23.pdf (471.6Kb)(more files)
Scheihing, P. (Energy Systems Laboratory, May 2009)[more][less]
Abstract: U.S. industry has the capacity to significantly improve its overall energy performance and help meet both private-sector and national goals for energy and the environment. TheUS Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) is partnering with industry to drive a 25% reduction in industrial energy intensity by 2017—and also contribute to an 18% reduction in carbon intensity economy-wide by 2012. To expedite progress in achieving these targets, ITP and industry are collaborating with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), non-profits, USEPA and NIST to facilitate the development of energy management standards and certification for manufacturing plants. The paper will describe the program criteria and opportunities for participation in the future.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-09-05-01.pdf (238.8Kb)
Subramanya, S. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2010)[more][less]
Abstract: After years of attempting to streamline operations in an effort to reduce operational costs, many industrial manufacturers are turning to strategic energy management as a potential money-saving strategy. In their efforts, managers face a number of significant barriers such as low awareness and expertise, elevated financial hurdle rate, lack of capital allocation and procurement constraints. In addition, energy efficiency efforts may be hampered by traditional single point energy reduction methods such as reviewing utility bills, getting equipment upgrade suggestions from vendors or one-time energy audits. Research demonstrates that these techniques have neither the visibility nor continuity to achieve energy reductions that are consistent and persistent. With the right Best Practices, however, using new methodologies and technologies unavailable only a few years ago, enterprises can achieve dramatic energy reductions and their resulting cost savings. These Best Practices are founded on 1) application of a systematic methodology for understanding where energy is used and how to reduce it; and 2) achieving visibility into sufficiently granular real-time information on key performance indicators; 3) integrating new technology into overall corporate strategy and processes to change behavior.
Files in this item: 2ESL-IE-10-05-19.pdf (1.828Mb)(more files)
Niksa, M. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), April 1992)[more][less]
Abstract: Large amounts of sodium sulfate are produced as a by-product of many diverse industries. Some of this material is recycled internally. Some is upgraded and sold as a product. Most is disposed of as waste in landfills, or discharged to deep-wells, or bodies of water. Electrolytic regeneration of by-product sodium sulfate can profitably exploit this valuable internal resource. ELTECH has a proven record in the development of long-life anodes for use in acid sulfate solutions, and in providing high performance electrolytic generators.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-92-04-28.pdf (2.904Mb)
Fiorino, D. P.; Priest, J. W. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1987)[more][less]
Abstract: Control strategies for plant engineering systems are a contemporary research topic of great interest. Their purpose is to provide control that adapts to changes in demand and other operating conditions in order to operate the system at maximum efficiency at all times. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports research on control models for energy-intensive industrial processes. Likewise, the National Science Foundation (NSF) recognizes the need to develop control algorithms for plant heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. In this research paper, a control algorithm was developed to select the optimal sequence of central refrigeration equipment (chillers, cooling towers, pumps) to operate in an industrial plant. The control algorithm adapts the optimal equipment sequence to reflect changes in the plant's cooling load and outside air conditions and it insures that the central refrigeration system operates with the lowest possible energy cost at all times.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-87-09-29.pdf (1.392Mb)
Enjeti, P. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1997)[more][less]
Abstract: Adjustable speed AC drives have become the preferred choice in many industrial applications where controlled speed is required. At the same time, the maturing of the technology and the availability of fast and efficient solid state power semiconductor switches (IGBTs) has resulted in voltage source, PWM controlled inverters becoming a standard configuration in the power range to 500kW. While high frequency PWM control represents the most advanced drive concept, when inappropriately applied, it generates side effects, some which have been recognized only recently. This paper presents a comprehensive coverage of application issues of PWM inverter controlled ac motor drives which include damage to motor insulation due to reflected voltages caused by long motor leads, electromagnetic interference, the mechanism of motor bearing failures due to electrostatic discharge leakage currents to ground, and poor total harmonic distortion (THD) of utility line currents. Following a description of the problems, several practical solutions are also presented and analyzed. Finally, line harmonic problems caused by the input diode rectifier are also described and some low cost solutions selected to meet IEEE 519-1992 are presented.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-97-04-37.pdf (4.284Mb)
Poole, J. N. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1989)[more][less]
Abstract: Electric motors are significant users of electricity in the United States. Approximately 66 percent of the total electricity in the U.S. is used by electric motors. Electronic adjustable speed drives (ASDs) can save energy, lower maintenance cost and improve product quality. By providing a variable frequency output to ac motors the speed of the motors can be controlled and matched to the process requirements. The benefits that may be derived from using ASDs are described and the type of ASDs, applications and specific case studies of ASD installations are also discussed.
Files in this item: 2ESL-IE-89-09-04.pdf (7.420Mb)(more files)
Jarc, D. A.; Robechek, J. D.; Connors, D. P. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1982)[more][less]
Abstract: Centrifugal pumps are generally sized to operate at or near the best efficiency point at maximum flow. The maximum flow requirements, however, frequently occur for a very short period during the operating cycle with the result that some method of flow control is required. The traditional approach to flow control has used valves which increase system pressure and inherently waste energy and generally cause the pump to operate at reduced efficiencies. Adjustable speed drives can achieve reduced flow by providing adjustable speed pump operation. This results in reduced system pressure and operation near the pump's Best Efficiency Point (BEP). In addition, maintenance costs might be reduced. This paper will discuss the energy savings potential of adjustable speed A-C drives followed by a brief description of the operation and relative benefits of different types of solid-state A-C drive types.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-82-04-109.pdf (1.118Mb)
Foley, D. J.; Chodorowski, A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), March 1993)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper describes applications and incentives for the use of variable frequency drivers (VFD) in the petroleum refining, petrochemical, and chemical industries. VFDs are a particular type of adjustable speed driver (ASD) found prevalently in these industries. Installations work best where both an energy efficiency improvement and a process control function can be accomplished with the same installation. Although these applications are quite familiar to mechanical and electrical engineers, they are still considered new technology among chemical and process engineers. Therefore, a significant amount of education is required to overcome natural resistance to these new "black box" systems. A survey conducted of VFD equipment suppliers, users, and others revealed that properly designed installations can accomplish the advertised energy savings while simultaneously realizing incentives for process control, product quality control, reduced maintenance, and others.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-93-03-24.pdf (4.510Mb)
Hickok, H. N. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1985)[more][less]
Abstract: Petroleum and chemical plants of today are effectively cutting energy losses in their plants thermally, electrically, and mechanically in their process equipment. In rotating process equipment such as pumps, fans, compressors, and blowers, much mechanical or fluid energy is being dissipated or thrown away by throttling valves, dampers, and adjustable guide vanes. Adjustable speed is an increasingly used feature in the search to find energy losses and reduce them. The paper reviews fluid mechanics in lay terms in an effort to illustrate where losses may be found and how to determine how much may be saved by retrofitting to or using adjustable speed. It also discusses other potential ways that adjustable speed may be typically used for process savings.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-85-05-83.pdf (607.7Kb)
Joshi, S.; Humphrey, J. L.; Fair, J. R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), June 1986)[more][less]
Abstract: Removal of small amounts of water from organic liquids is normally handled by adsorption or by azeotropic distillation. The latter method is well documented and analysis or design is straightforward so long as the azeotrope is properly defined. The former method, adsorption, is not well documented or understood even though it is practiced fairly extensively. The purpose of this paper is to review the state-of-the-art on adsorptive drying of liquid organics having limited water solubility and to make appropriate comparisons with the distillation method. A few other drying methods will also be discussed. Included in the presentation will be information on the determination of adsorption isotherms and the modeling of adsorption kinetics. A description of an experimental program at The University of Texas at Austin will also be given.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-86-06-27.pdf (1.480Mb)
Ferri, J. L. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1988)[more][less]
Abstract: When recuperators are installed on industrial furnaces, burners and ratio control systems must continue to operate reliably under a wider range of conditions. Most currently available hot air burners use dilution air to prevent fuel decomposition and internal damage. Ratio control systems which operate properly are complicated and economically unjustifiable. This paper details the development and operation of the GTE ceramic burners and an inexpensive ratio control device for preheated air systems called the Temperature Compensator. This work was possible through funding from the Gas Research Institute (GRI).
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-88-09-52.pdf (1.002Mb)