Browsing IETC - Industrial Energy Technology Conference by Title
McCowan, B.; Birleanu, D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2005)[more][less]
Abstract: Before the advent of practical mercury vapor and fluorescent lighting, the only available artificial lighting for industrial buildings was incandescent. The illumination of active industrial workspaces with incandescent lighting is difficult, so during the industrial revolution, architects utilized various daylighting strategies such as window walls, skylighting, monitors, etc. However, glazing technologies were primitive compared with our modern choices, When more efficient and effective artificial lighting became available, most older industrial buildings had their daylighting features boarded over. With modern glazing systems and sophisticated designs that minimize glare issues, daylighting for industrial buildings is making a strong comeback. Additionally, new controllable ballasts and automatic lighting controls make possible hybrid lighting systems that are able to provide optimal lighting under all environmental conditions. This paper will discuss how daylighting systems developed decades ago are being modernized to provide high quality, low-glare, uniform lighting. Premium glazing systems that limit heat losses and gain will be discussed. The importance of glare control in day-lit spaces, for worker safety and productivity, will be stressed, and a variety of passive and active strategies will be presented including: redirected beam daylighting; reflective light shelves; and movable baffles and louvers.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-05-05-24.pdf (574.2Kb)
Polley, G. T.; Pugh, S. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 2001)[more][less]
Abstract: Over the last thirty years much progress has been made in heat exchanger design methodology. Even so, the design engineer still has to deal with a great deal of uncertainty. Whilst the methods used to predict heat transfer coefficients are now quite sophisticated and take account of many physical factors, the results they yield are still inaccurate. Physical property information is required for the estimation of heat transfer coefficients. Available information is often of dubious accuracy. Even given accurate properties modern methods for the predictions of tube-side heat transfer coefficient can be expected to have an accuracy of only ± 10%. For the shell-side, higher errors (say, around ±15%) can be expected. Perhaps worst of all, comes the specification of fouling resistance (the allowance made for the thermal resistance presented by dirt layers deposited on the heat exchanger tubes). In most instances there is little science or understanding behind the specification of these resistances. Traditionally there have been two approaches to dealing with these uncertainties: over-specification of fouling resistance; and, addition of 'design margin' (i.e. addition of extra surface area). There are cases in which both approaches are adopted. The engineer specifying the required duty provides a higher than necessary fouling resistance whilst the exchanger designer adds design margin! Both approaches result in 'over-design'.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-01-05-20.pdf (3.370Mb)
Moon, S.; Heyman, E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2006)[more][less]
Abstract: In 1991, the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) introduced “Eco- Efficiency” as a management strategy to link financial and environmental performance to create more value with less ecological impact. Based on this strategy, CETAC-WEST (Canadian Environmental Technology Advancement Corporation - West), in mid-2000, introduced a practical approach to eco-efficiency to Western Canada's upstream oil and gas sector. The CETAC-WEST Eco-Efficiency Program, focused primarily on sour gas processing facilities, has developed methods and programs to identify opportunities for energy conservation and GHG reductions. The program outlined in this paper consists of four interrelated phases that are used to identify and track efficiency opportunities as well as promote the use of energy efficient methodologies and technologies. If, as program results suggest, 15% to 20% of the gas that is now consumed at by plant operations can be saved through efficiencies, it would save $500 to $700 million worth of gas for sale on the market. Although this small Pilot Program in the gas processing sector has surfaced major opportunities, there are significantly greater opportunities in other sectors with high GHG emissions intensity, such as sweet gas processing, conventional oil, heavy oil and oil sands. Capturing these opportunities will require a carefully considered strategy. This strategy should include, in addition to commitments for expanding the scope of the current Program, sustained leadership by industry champions and by governments - all aimed at changing the operating mode and improving the culture in the oil and gas industry.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-06-05-03.pdf (561.1Kb)
Darby, D. F. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1981)[more][less]
Abstract: An overview of the Deere & Company Energy Management Program is discussed. A review is made of seven key elements which have contributed to the success of the program. Installed projects and established programs are identified and discussed. The results achieved by Deere & Company in energy conservation are quantified. Major points presented are audits, energy accounting, monitoring program results and feedback reporting. The corporate Energy Management Program is detailed. This includes organization, personnel requirements, energy efficiency goals and maintenance of a corporate data base.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-81-04-66.pdf (1.012Mb)
Boyd, P. M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1980)[more][less]
Abstract: An overview of the Deere & Company energy management program is discussed. A review is made of seven key elements which have contributed to the success of the program. Installed projects and established programs are identified and discussed. The results achieved by Deere & Company in energy conservation are quantified. Major points presented are audits, energy accounting, monitoring program results and feedback reporting. The corporate energy management program is detailed. This includes organization, personnel requirements, energy efficiency goals and maintenance of a corporate data base.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-80-04-23.pdf (1.024Mb)
Robbins, J. M.; Federer, J. I.; Parks, W. P. Jr.; Reid, J. S. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), June 1986)[more][less]
Abstract: Degradation mechanisms in conventional refratories, structural ceramics, and metallic alloys were revealed by examination of materials exposed to industrial and synthetic flue gases. Deterioration of refractory oxides and oxide structural ceramics involved formation of new liquid, glass, and solid phases, which resulted in loss of structural integrity. Destructive stresses associated with volume changes in the case of new solid phases were sometimes increased by thermal cycling. In the case of silicon carbide ceramics the viscosity of the normally protective oxide film was lowered by reaction with alkali oxides, which resulted in enhanced oxygen diffusion and active oxidation. Silicon carbide was also attacked by halide-containing atmospheres. Degradation was also caused by excessive temperatures, thermal cycling, and stresses caused by adhering slags. Several types of degradation mechanisms were observed in metallic alloys including breakaway oxidation, intergranular oxidation and attack, and sulfidation-oxidation.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-86-06-10.pdf (1.429Mb)
McIntyre, D. R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: Wet thermal insulation may actively degrade steel and stainless steel structures by general corrosion or stress-corrosion cracking. Two different mechanisms of water ingress into insulation are discussed; flooding from external sources, and migration from condensation of atmospheric moisture. The general corrosion rate of steels under insulation is predictable (within a broad scatter band) on the basis of temperature and oxygen content. This relationship is presented graphically based on plant case histories. Rainwater, washwater and the insulation itself are compared as potential sources of chloride to promote external SCC of stainless steels. Preventative measures will be discussed.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-84-04-16.pdf (3.165Mb)
Epstein, G.; D'Antonio, M.; Schmidt, C.; Seryak, J.; Smith, C. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2005)[more][less]
Abstract: There are numerous programs sponsored by Independent System Operators (ISOs) and utility or state efficiency programs that have an objective of reducing peak demand. Most of these programs have targeted the residential and commercial sector, however, there are also huge opportunities for demand response in the industrial sector. This paper describes some of the demand response initiatives that are currently active in New York State, explaining applicability of industrial facilities. Next, we discuss demand response-enabling technologies, which can help an industrial plant effectively address demand response needs. Finally, the paper is concluded with a discussion of case study projects that illustrate application of some of these demand response enabling technologies for process operations. These case studies, illustrating some key projects from the NYSERDA Peak Load Reduction program, will describe the technologies and approaches deployed to achieve the demand reduction at the site, the quantitative impact of the project, and a discussion of the overall successes at each site.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-05-05-09.pdf (502.6Kb)
Kumana, J. D.; Nath, R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), March 1993)[more][less]
Abstract: In order to develop effective Demand Side Management (DSM) programs, it is important to properly understand the cogeneration capabilities of large industrial customers. Projecting historical trends may be simple and convenient, but can lead to erroneous conclusions. A better understanding can be obtained by analyzing specific details of the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system in the customer's plant. The authors present a new methodology which they call "Demand Side Dispatching". This methodology comprises developing simple yet realistic mixed integer linear models of the customer's CHP and solving such models using proven Mixed Integer Linear Programming algorithms to determine globally optimum operating policies. This methodology in effect predicts rational customer responses to varying steam/power load scenarios to alternate fuel/power contracts. Such analyses could either be done individually for each customer or combined to provide a composite regional picture. The intended application is to study the impact of different rate schedules on the customer's CHP operating policy, and hence on the utility demand profile. By including potential alternate cogeneration equipment options in the models, it would also be possible to understand which rate schedules provide incentives for future cogeneration, and which do not. An illustrative example is provided. The results of an industrial application (an oil refinery) are presented in Part 2 of this paper.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-93-03-45.pdf (3.132Mb)
Nath, R.; Cerget, D. A.; Henderson, E. T. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), March 1993)[more][less]
Abstract: As part of their Demand Side Management programs, electric utility companies often offer Time of Use (TOU) or other incentive rates to large industrial clients. Such rates offer potential money saving opportunities to industrial clients, and the benefits of improved load shape to the electric power utility. The evidence indicates, however, that industrial facilities have taken only limited advantage of such opportunities. Even those industrial plants that are on TOU rates tend not to adjust the operating policy of their plant utilities (boilers, turbines, chillers, etc.) in response to varying power costs. The main reason for these missed opportunities is a lack of suitable dispatching programs. A key component of successful DSM programs is dispatching software which should not only be reliable, realistic and robust, but must also be easy to use by plant operations and planning staff. Once such software is in place, continuous benefits can be realized by both the industrial clients and the sponsoring utility. Details of development and deployment of such a program sponsored by Detroit Edison for a local refinery are presented in this paper.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-93-03-46.pdf (4.098Mb)
Chao, P. Y.; Shukla, D.; Amarnath, A.; Mergens, E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), April 1992)[more][less]
Abstract: The emerging concept of Demand Side Management (DSM) has achieved considerable importance in the 90's. It is estimated that since 1977, the number of utility-sponsored DSM programs have expanded from 134 to nearly 1300. These programs have resulted in capacity deferrals of more than 21,000 MW. By conservative estimates, this translates into $21 billion dollars in avoided costs. The various DSM programs can be divided into six major groups. They are Peak Clipping, Valley filling, Load Shifting, Strategic Conservation, Strategic Load Growth, and Flexible Load Shaping. Absorption Refrigeration from waste heat offers a viable option for DSM. This will either reduce the peak load (peak clipping) or the base load (strategic conservation), depending on the plant's situation and the utility rate structure. This paper will examine various application modes for absorption refrigeration as a DSM option. Proper procedure of evaluating absorption refrigeration potential will be illustrated by two recent case studies.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-92-04-37.pdf (4.454Mb)
Demand-Side and Supply-Side Load Management: Optimizing with Thermal Energy Storage (TES) for the Restructuring Energy MarketplaceAndrepont, J. S. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 2002)[more][less]
Abstract: The current and future restructuring energy marketplace represents a number of challenges and opportunities to maximize value through the management of peak power. This is true both on the demand-side regarding peak power use and on the supply-side regarding power generation. Thermal Energy Storage (TES) can provide the flexibility essential to the economical management of power. In large industrial applications, the added value of TES has been demonstrated, not only in managing operating costs, but also in delivering a net saving in capital cost versus conventional, non-storage approaches. This capital cost saving is often realized in situations where investments in chiller plant capacity, or in on-site power generating capacity, are required. On the demand-side, TES has long been used to shift air-conditioning loads and process cooling loads from on-peak to off-peak periods. In today's and tomorrow's restructuring energy markets, price spikes are increasingly likely during periods of peak power demand. TES is performing an important role, especially when coupled with a proper understanding of modern TES technology options. The inherent advantages and limitations of the available TES technology options are briefly reviewed and discussed. Examples of existing large TES installations are presented, identifying the TES technology types they utilize. The applications include industrial facilities, as well as universities, hospitals, government, and District Cooling utility systems. The power management impact and the economic benefits of TES are illustrated through a review of several TES case studies. Combustion Turbines (CTs) are a common choice for modern on-site and utility power generation facilities. Inlet air cooling of CTs enhances their hot weather performance and has been successfully accomplished for many years, using a variety of technologies. In many instances, TES can and does provide a uniquely advantageous method of optimizing the economics of CT Inlet Cooling (CTIC) systems. TES systems can achieve low inlet air temperatures, with resulting high levels of power augmentation. The TES approach also minimizes the installed capacity (and capital cost) of cooling systems, as well as limiting the parasitic loads occurring during periods of peak power demand and peak power value. Chilled water, ice, and low temperature fluid TES systems are all applicable to CTIC. The inherent pros and cons of each TES type are discussed. Sensitivity analyses are presented to explore the impact of cooling hours per day on capital cost per kW of power enhancement. Case histories illustrate the beneficial impact of TES-based CTIC on both capital cost and operating cost of CT power plants. TES-based CTIC is advantageous as an economical, peaking power enhancement for either peaking or base-load plants. It is applied to both new and existing CTs. TES is projected to have even greater value in future restructuring energy markets.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-02-04-42.pdf (3.483Mb)
Biedrzycki, C. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), June 1986)[more][less]
Abstract: Section 23.22 of the Substantive Rules of the Public Utility Commission of Texas requires that generating utilities and utilities with more than 20,000 customers file energy efficiency plans. The plans identify and evaluate supply-side and demand-side alternatives to new power plant construction. Filed every two years, the plans are to be coordinated with the utility’s load forecast and are formally reviewed for rate cases, notices of intent for new construction, and avoided cost proceedings. Electric utilities covered by the rules were required to submit plans at the end of 1984 and 1985; the next plan will be due at the end of 1987. This paper summarizes the Commission’s requirements for conservation and load management planning and assesses the progress that utilities have made in fulfilling the intent of the rules. Deficiencies in the plans are assessed and future directions for the plans are discussed.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-86-06-87.pdf (1.752Mb)
Rastler, D. M.; Keeler, C. G.; Chi, C. V. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), March 1993)[more][less]
Abstract: Several studies indicate that carbonate fuel cell systems have the potential to offer efficient, cost competitive, and environmentally preferred power plants operating on natural gas or coal derived gas (“syn-gas”). To date, however, no fuel cell system has run on actual syn-gas. Consequently, the Electric Power Research Institute (“EPRI”) has sponsored a 20 kW carbonate fuel cell pilot plant that will begin operating in March at Destec Energy’s coal gasification plant in Plaquemine, Louisiana. The primary purpose of the test is to determine the effect of syn-gas contaminants on the performance and life of the carbonate fuel cell. This paper will describe the project objectives, design aspects of the pilot facility, and the status of the project.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-93-03-10.pdf (3.460Mb)
Molczan, T. J.; Scriven, A. P.; Magro, J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: Canada Packers Inc. has successfully demonstrated condensing flue gas heat recovery and rendering vapour heat recovery under the Federal/Provincial Conservation and Renewable Energy Demonstration Agreement. The condensing flue gas heat recovery system, designed and manufactured by John Thurley Ltd., has been in operation at the Winnipeg Packinghouse Plant since the summer of 1982. It is capable of recovering about four times as much heat as conventional systems, such as economizers and combustion air preheaters. This is due to its ability to recover latent heat by condensing the flue gas water vapour, and to recover a greater portion of the sensible heat. As a result, the exit flue gas temperature is reduced to about 30 C. The heat recovery system is capable of heating water to about 60 C, thus it is ideally suited to operations which require large quantities of hot water, At Winnipeg the pre-heated water is used for processing, sanitation and boiler make-up. The rendering vapour heat recovery system, in operation at the Moose Jaw Packinghouse Plant since December 1982, recovers previously lost waste heat produced by four batch inedible rendering cookers. The vapour, which has the properties of atmospheric saturated steam, is used to preheat city water to about 65 C, by means of a spiral heat exchanger. The preheated water is heated to the process temperature using steam.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-84-04-121.pdf (4.984Mb)
Demonstration of Natural Gas Engine Driven Air Compressor Technology at Department of Defense Industrial FacilitiesLin, M.; Aylor, S. W.; Van Ormer, H. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 2002)[more][less]
Abstract: Recent downsizing and consolidation of Department of Defense (DOD) facilities provides an opportunity to upgrade remaining facilities with more efficient and less polluting equipment. Use of air compressors by the DOD is widespread and the variety of tools and machinery that operate on compressed air is increasing. The energy cost of operating a natural gas engine-driven air compressor (NGEDAC) is usually lower than the cost of operating an electric-driven air compressor. Initial capital costs are offset by differences in prevailing utility rates, efficiencies of partial load operation, reductions in peak demand, heat recovery, and avoiding the cost of back-up generators. Natural gas, a clean-burning fuel, is abundant and readily available. In an effort to reduce its over-all environmental impact and energy consumption, the U.S. Army plans to apply NGEDAC technology in support of fixed facilities compressed air systems. Site assessment and demonstration results are presented in this paper.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-02-04-38.pdf (5.496Mb)
Carter, D. E. F.; Lawrence, J. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1983)[more][less]
Abstract: Technology transfer has been one of the most intractable problems faced on a worldwide basis. The problem is particularly acute in the field of energy efficiency because none of the 3 major parties involved, the researcher, the manufacturer or the user is well geared to undertake the task in this still developing field. The UK Government recognized the problem and established the Energy Conservation Demonstration Project Scheme in 1978 to promote the take-up of cost effective conservation technology. The Scheme offers financial support to companies 'hosting' novel projects which the Government then monitors and publicizes to the relevant market sectors in order to stimulate 'replication' of the by then proven technology. This paper outlines the objectives and operation of the scheme and illustrates work underway with case studies in the areas of automatic energy management control systems and industrial heat recovery and cogeneration.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-83-04-70.pdf (5.402Mb)
Eustis, J. N. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: The Department of Energy (DOE) in their Industrial Programs Office in Conservation and Solar Applications is involved in development and commercialization of a number of energy conserving techniques. These include high and low temperature processing improvements, waste material recovery, cogeneration and heat recovery equipment. The criteria for this work is that it must be based on present technology in new applications or for modest advances in present techniques; in new or innovative applications. Equipment in the mature developed state must have a return on an investment (ROI) that exceeds their particular industry threshold value for capital investment. It must provide significant net national energy savings based on projected markets and penetration particularly on scarce fuels.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-10.pdf (1.255Mb)
McGeown, D. I. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1995)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper expands on concepts presented at the World Energy Congress and DA/DSM earlier this year. In the light of recent developments I have changed the title of the paper, merged some of the issues and updated my comments. The entire energy industry is in a state of flux in anticipation of the deregulation of the electricity supply industry. Utilities are, right now, creating subsidiary companies which will take advantage of the new competitive markets. These companies will trade as Energy Service Providers, offering a wide range of products, including conservation. They will focus on the bills the customers pay, not solely on the rates for energy. As this transition occurs the current methods for implementing energy conservation will be closely examined. We will see some of the aberrant and expensive practices created within a closely regulated Demand Side Management environment disappear. They will be replaced by traditional methodologies used in the construction industry. This paper examined the opportunity for those construction models in the competitive energy supply industry. I contend that an adaptation of the design and build method of construction offers many of the answers needed for cost effective implementation. The Design & Build contract has most of the key features needed in an energy conservation project. It is a proven method, understood by all participants, and it has inherent flexibility, needed to provide the building owner with the optimum solution for the building. Concentrating on the design of comprehensive Energy Conservation Measures (ECM), the D&B firm augments the strengths of its customers, conservation developers. The concepts offered herein are largely speculative; intended to create dialogue on the opportunities suggested. This document is not definitive. Now, can the industry make this work?
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-95-04-48.pdf (3.368Mb)
Guyer, E. C.; Gollin, M. K.; Brownell, D. L. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), June 1986)[more][less]
Abstract: A plastic film heat exchanger (PFHX) utilizes the low cost and high resistance to corrosion and fouling which are offered by plastics. The PFHX consists of elements, each formed by a pair of closely spaced plastic films, with liquid flowing between the films. The fluid on the other side of the film could be liquid, gas, or a condensing vapor. The low thermal conductivity of the plastic is offset by the use of thin films so that overall heat transfer rates are achieved which are comparable to conventional units. Potential uses for such a unit are low grade heat recovery, flue gas condensing, and liquid dessicant dehumidification systems. This paper discusses the range of plastic films available and compares their individual properties with those desirable in materials to be used in a PFHX. The problems associated with the design of elements and manifolds are described together with an analysis of the thermal and hydraulic factors affecting the operation of the unit.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-86-06-80.pdf (1.036Mb)