Browsing IETC - Industrial Energy Technology Conference by Title
Eco-Efficiency in Practice: Aligning Business and Environmental Interests in the Upstream Oil and Gas SectorLukacs, J.; Munroe, V. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2005)[more][less]
Abstract: In 1991, the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) introduced “Eco- Efficiency” as a management strategy to link financial and environmental performance to create more value with less ecological impact. Based on this strategy, CETAC-WEST (Canadian Environmental Technology Advancement Corporation - West), in mid-2000, introduced a practical approach to eco-efficiency to Western Canada's upstream oil and gas sector. The CETAC-WEST Eco-Efficiency Program, focused primarily on sour gas processing facilities, has developed methods and programs to identify opportunities for energy conservation and GHG reductions. The program outlined in this paper consists of four interrelated phases that are used to identify and track efficiency opportunities as well as promote the use of energy efficient methodologies and technologies. If, as program results suggest, 15% to 20% of the gas that is now consumed at by plant operations can be saved through efficiencies, it would save $500 to $700 million worth of gas for sale on the market. Although this small Pilot Program in the gas processing sector has surfaced major opportunities, there are significantly greater opportunities in other sectors with high GHG emissions intensity, such as sweet gas processing, conventional oil, heavy oil and oil sands. Capturing these opportunities will require a carefully considered strategy. This strategy should include, in addition to commitments for expanding the scope of the current Program, sustained leadership by industry champions and by governments - all aimed at changing the operating mode and improving the culture in the oil and gas industry.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-05-05-52.pdf (381.1Kb)
Kaplan, S. I.; Huntley, W. R.; Perez-Blanco, H. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1985)[more][less]
Abstract: Absorption heat pumps are a viable technology for waste heat recovery in industry. Yet, no U.S applications exist to date. In sharp contrast, large scale heat pumps are used in Japan, and a few recent installations have been reported in Europe. This paper presents a description of the existing technologies and applications. A comparative economic analysis of an actual application is carried out for Japan and U.S. conditions. From this analysis, criteria and paths are identified for future technology developments that could make widespread use of these heat pumps economically attractive in the U.S.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-85-05-89.pdf (1.264Mb)
The Economic and Environmental Aspects of Heat Exchanger Cleaning -- How FP&L Has Used the Newly Patented MCC Process to Clean Turbine Lube Oil Coolers to Maximize Efficiency and Minimize WasteWood, H. A. T. (Energy Systems Laboratory, May 1999)[more][less]
Abstract: The fouling of heat exchangers of all types can affect a company's bottom line. Today, with better operational record keeping and the development of new research and modeling, we are beginning to get a better understanding of the importance of efficient and timely cleaning of heat exchangers. There are great differences in the cleaning processes that are used to clean exchanger bundles in industry today. The cleaning of turbine lube oil coolers is a specialized case in point. A newly patented process developed in Ohio has been tried in Florida at FP&L with significant results. Cleaning efficiencies of 92% are 30% greater than those achieved with high-pressure washing. Using a constantly filtered solvent and 1000 gpm flow rates form up to 180 nozzles this new process eliminates or reduces wastewater generation by 85%. The process appears to offer significant advantages in the power, petroleum, and petrochemical industries.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-99-05-48.pdf (770.6Kb)
Freund, S. H. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: The U.S. pulp, paper and paperboard industry has made significant improvements over the past eleven years in the energy efficiency of its operations. The industry is firmly committed to: increased utilization of important renewable domestic energy sources such as wood residues, pulping liquors, and hydropower; improved energy efficiency through cogeneration, product and process improvements; and reduced national dependence on foreign energy. The achievements are substantial and will be reviewed. The potential exists to expand the industry's energy self-sufficiency, use of more energy efficient technologies, and development of hydropower and cogeneration; however, national policies play a crucial role in allowing the industry to realize this potential. These national policies include issues associated with cogeneration, licensing and relicensing of private small scale hydroelectric projects, acid rain, and federal funding of energy technology research and development. The paper industry's actions and accomplishments arising from participation in the formulation and implementation of national policy will be addressed.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-84-04-110.pdf (3.238Mb)
Timm, M. L. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), June 1986)[more][less]
Abstract: Evaporators are used extensively in the chemical, pulp and paper, food and beverage, and related industries. Mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) evaporators are a type using an open heat pump cycle with steam as the working fluid. The technology is widely used and time-proven. Closed cycle vapor compression is an emerging technology. A secondary working fluid such as a halocarbon is used in a closed heat pump cycle to transfer heat from the steam condenser to the hottest surface. Advantages of closed cycle evaporation include flexibility in working fluid selection, potential savings in compressor first cost, and isolation of the compressor from potentially corrosive or troublesome gases and liquid droplets in the suction vapor. A major disadvantage of closed cycle evaporation is that the driving force developed by the compressor (temperature difference) must be shared between two heat transfer surfaces, vs. one in the open cycle design. This paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of open and closed cycle evaporators. Factors considered include working fluid physical properties and thermodynamics, compressor operating limits and cost, and surface area sizing and cost.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-86-06-34.pdf (1.609Mb)
Economic Evaluation of By-Product Power/Co-Generation Systems for Industrial Plants with Fluidized-Bed Coal Burning FacilitiesMesko, J. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1980)[more][less]
Abstract: Economic analysis of the construction and operation of by-product electric power and steam/power cogeneration systems in coal fired fluidized-bed steam cycles, located at individual industrial sites analyzed by the author, is being presented. The plants analyzed employ fluidized bed boilers for generation of steam for process and building/heating/cooling demands, in conjunction with electric power co-generation. Results of the analysis are presented, using life cycle costs and investment payback periods, pinpointing the areas, type and magnitude of costs which should be considered in the selection of combustors or systems. Capital and operating costs, and recognized technical and economic barriers are also presented and their effects indicated. Life cycle cost of each of the alternatives analyzed are compared and the expected payback periods for the different size FBC plants and for different annual average production levels are discussed.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-80-04-113.pdf (1.489Mb)
Collins, D.; Lang, R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1997)[more][less]
Abstract: Industrial energy management includes the fuel procurement, production, conservation and efficient use of utilities such as steam, electricity, compressed air and water. Steam is the underpinning utility and has the greatest economic impact. The efficient production and delivery of quality steam directly affects the cost of the other utilities as well as the manufacturing process. Utilities are rarely looked upon as a source of corporate profit, especially in times of double-digit expansion. They typically represent only 3 to 11% of manufacturing cost and are perceived as an unavoidable cost. However, in an era of heighten global manufacturing competition and world wide reallocation of natural resources, utilities are recognized as a variable cost that can be a major cost savings opportunity and a strategic contributor to corporate profit. This paper will discuss the economic justifications for boiler control, a methodology to identify and address energy savings, case studies of successful energy management projects and an overview of possible control and optimization solutions.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-97-04-03.pdf (3.681Mb)
Erickson, D. C. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1983)[more][less]
Abstract: There are at least six major types of equipment that upgrade waste heat: (1) thermocompressor; (2) electric drive compressor heat pump; (3) absorption heat pump; (4) high temperature heat powered compressor heat pump; (5) reverse absorption heat pump; and (6) waste heat driven compressor heat pump. Some of these are not widely known, and there has been a tendency to ascribe the characteristics and limitations of the most well-known member to all members of the group. This paper demonstrates the wide variation that actually exists between the different options, and highlights the considerations necessary to ensure the most economic choice for a particular application.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-83-04-93.pdf (4.598Mb)
Whittington, B. W. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1980)[more][less]
Abstract: Energy efficient polyphase integral horsepower electric motors are currently being vigorously promoted as a profitable method of conserving energy in many industrial and commercial applications. While the goal to be attained is indeed laudable, and must be tenaciously pursued, the economic realities of investment payback on increased efficiency versus cost of change out, power factor, etc. must have a meaningful review before decision making. Actual savings on a discount cash flow basis must be documented. and validity of the claims for the energy efficient motor must be verified. This paper develops the procedures used by the chemical manufacturing divisions of the Union Carbide Corporation in developing a long range plan for evolution from a motor population of standard efficiency units to one of higher efficiency and increased reliability. It notes statistics publicized by the U.S. Department of Energy, Union Carbide's overall electric equipment efficiency review, their own efficiency testing of sample small electric motors, and a pilot program to determine the number of lightly loaded motors in plant location. It further depicts an economic appraisal on the payback of replacing a standard efficiency motor with a higher efficiency unit and an action plan for purchasing energy efficient motors while simultaneously securing optimization of other parameters.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-80-04-69.pdf (1.102Mb)
Hovstadius, G. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1999)[more][less]
Abstract: Speed variations of pumps have become increasingly popular as the technology to produce variable frequency drives has progressed. Variable speed drives have many advantages compared to throttle valves when it comes to regulation of flow. They offer large energy savings and, hence, large cost savings if they are applied correctly. Recent experiences have shown that there are many cases where no savings are realized; there are also cases where the cost of pumping actually has been increasing. In addition, pump and motor equipment failures have been more prevalent when used in variable frequency drive systems. Why does this happen? It is important to realize that all of the components of a pumping system are interdependent. Sub-optimization on the component level can easily lead one astray. End users and design engineers should use a systems approach when analyzing pumping systems for optimized energy efficiency and economic considerations. Designers must consider the shape of the system head curve. Any pump system with static head is a potential candidate for trouble if the pump system parameters are not fully analyzed and understood. This paper will point out some of the pitfalls when dealing with pumping applications which contain static head. When comparing different solutions for optimizing a pump system it is helpful to be able to easily identify the system effectiveness and to compare different solutions. In order to make an intelligent choice, some basic facts will need to be established. The first is, what are the Process Demands? The Process Demands will generally steer you in a certain direction. For example, do you need to be able to vary the flow rate and, if so, should it be continuously variable or can you vary your flow rate in steps? Can you use on-off batch pumping? What is your peak flow rate and how is the flow rate distributed over time? The answers to these questions will determine if, and how, to regulate the flow, It will also give some guidance regarding the design of your pumping system.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-99-05-39.pdf (3.277Mb)
Dean, J. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1997)[more][less]
Abstract: Steam turbines have long been used at utilities and in industry to generate power. There are three basic types of steam turbines: condensing, letdown and extraction/condensing. • Letdown turbines reduce the pressure of the incoming steam to one or more pressures and generate power very efficiently, assuming that all the letdown steam has a use. Two caveats: Letdown turbines produce power based upon steam requirements and not based upon power requirements, and if all the steam letdown does not have a use, letdown turbines can become a very expensive way of producing electric power. • Condensing turbines have the ability to handle rapid swings in electrical load. Unfortunately, they can only condense a small percentage of the steam, usually less than 14%. Therefore only a small percent of the heat of condensation is available for their use. Also equipment must be used to condense the remaining steam below atmospheric pressure. • Extraction/condensing turbines both extract steam at a useful temperature and pressure and then condense the remainder of the steam. These units have the ability to load follow also. They are often used in concert with gas turbines to produce the balance of electrical power and to keep a electric self generator from drawing electrical power from the grid. The method for analyzing the cost of the condensing steam produced power is exactly the same in all cases. This paper will attempt to provide a frame work for preliminary economic analysis on electric power generation for condensing steam turbines.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-97-04-51.pdf (2.509Mb)
Hansen, D. W.; Winters, P. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1996)[more][less]
Abstract: Chilled Water Thermal Energy Storage (TES) offers benefits to both the electricity supplier and the electricity user. This well-established technology uses stratified chilled water to store energy in thermal form so that electricity can be purchased during off-peak periods for use during on-peak periods. This energy shift offers both the user and the generator an opportunity to match their needs to get a win-win arrangement. The advantages to the electricity user not only include lower energy costs (due to reduced demand charges or other means). Chilled Water TES has also been shown to provide added cooling for less than the chiller equipment that it offsets. Finally, the various non-standard rate structures available today offer opportunities for electricity users who have some control over their demand profile. For the electricity generator, Chilled Water TES shifts electrical load from on-peak periods to off-peak periods. This has the effect of increasing the demand for base-load power while decreasing the demand for peaking power. Also, since Chilled Water TES installations are usually fairly large (1 MW or more per site), a small number of installations will produce a significant impact on the generator’s peaking power generation requirements.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-96-04-07.pdf (6.724Mb)
Gilbert, J. S. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: It seems that we have all struggled to convince management to pursue energy conservation using economic arguments, only to find that when all is said and done there is something else that gets certain projects approved. What is it, and what are the human dynamics that are at play? How can you be more effective at the game? This paper hypothesizes generic management styles and approaches that we have seen motivate upper management to take action. These will be analyzed using organization theory to show that they were quite predictable, and can be generalized to an approach we can all use as a checklist to be sure an important project doesn't get snagged 'in channels.'
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-84-04-05.pdf (2.027Mb)
Siegell, J. H. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1987)[more][less]
Abstract: The performance of heat integration systems is normally quantified in terms of the amount of heat that is recovered. In an effort to mitigate the usual decrease in heat recovery with time due to fouling of the heat transfer surface, various chemical additives can be utilized. Using the "Total Fouling Related Expense (TFRE)" approach, the economics of antifoulant application are evaluated based on the optimum exchanger cleaning interval. Sensitivities to antifoulant effectiveness are calculated and procedures which can be used to evaluate the economic optimum use of antifoulants are described.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-87-09-14.pdf (1.197Mb)
Wagner, J. R.; Choroszylow, E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1982)[more][less]
Abstract: Recently, back-pressure steam turbines have become the focal point in many cogeneration applications. This is a result of the savings in operating costs associated with the generation of electrical or mechanical power coincident with the economical use of available thermal energy. The benefits and constraints of back-pressure systems, however, are not always readily apparent and may result in the misapplication of this technology. This paper, therefore, will examine new turbine installations and backpressure retrofits and will determine the most economical back-pressure turbine applications. A generalized methodology is highlighted, allowing the reader to readily evaluate and determine the economic justification of back-pressure turbines in many cogeneration applications. The impact on plant energy use and cost is calculated, and the effects of load variation and the value of high-efficiency turbines are discussed. The specific process plant case studies reviewed involve back-pressure turbines of 100 to 5000 hp for mechanical drives, for generator drives, and as pressure reducing station replacements.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-82-04-90.pdf (1.432Mb)
Fisk, R. W.; Hall, E. W.; Sweeney, J. H. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1985)[more][less]
Abstract: The design and choice of a specific cogeneration system is a process of selecting and deciding from numerous alternatives, including the option not to cogenerate. The final system specification is in reality the result of an extensive tradeoff analysis. The reason for performing a thorough tradeoff analysis is to design a cogeneration system that will meet or surpass stated technical, operational and economic criteria. This paper outlines the steps necessary to select the preferred cogeneration system through the use of standard economic evaluation techniques.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-85-05-79.pdf (1.341Mb)
Renshaw, T. A.; Sapakie, S. F.; Hanson, M. C. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1983)[more][less]
Abstract: The economics of four concentration processes utilized by the food industry were analyzed. The processes examined are: triple effect evaporation, mechanical vapor recompression evaporation, reverse osmosis, and freeze concentration. The analysis was conducted on a typical water system concentrated from 5% to 30% solids. It includes operating and fixed capital costs at three throughput levels. A comparison is also made with previously published data on concentration costs. The analysis of the fixed capital costs of the four systems shows the expected rise in cost from the triple effect evaporator through the vapor recompression, reverse osmosis, and freeze concentration systems. At a given water removal rate the vapor recompression system is 1-1/2 times as costly as the triple effect system, while the reverse osmosis and freeze concentration systems are 3 and 7 times as costly. However, these relationships change when manufacturing costs are considered. The reverse osmosis system is cheaper to operate than the triple effect evaporator, while the reverse osmosis and freeze concentration system are 2 and 3 times as costly. This shrinkage of the cost differentials is primarily due to the type and quantity of energy each of these systems utilize.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-83-04-06.pdf (3.685Mb)
Schmeal, W. R.; Hibbs, J. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1994)[more][less]
Abstract: Three new factors are coming together to motivate gas pipeline firms to consider electric motors for replacement of older reciprocating gas engines for compressor systems, and for new compressor installations. These factors are environmental regulations, economics, and new compressor technology. In ozone Non-Attainment regions, it is necessary to bring gas compressors into compliance with NOx regulations, and replacement with new electric systems represents a Lowest Achievable Emission Rate (LAER) option. Outside of these regions, new electric drives as well as gas fueled reciprocating engines and turbines are being considered for replacement of older reciprocating gas engines and compressor units, based on improved operating efficiency. We review here the impacts of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and economics on the selection process for considering electric drives versus alternatives for both ozone Non-Attainment areas and Attainment areas.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-94-04-55.pdf (4.476Mb)
Nachod, J. E. Jr. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1987)[more][less]
Abstract: Capital allocated to energy savings projects competes with that for new or revised plants. Thus, it must show the same or better rate of return. Usually the risk factor in energy savings projects is less than allocations for other uses. The categories of energy consumption on a chemical or petrochemical plant are defined. Distillation is often the largest energy consumer, hence, offering the most promising area for investigation of energy savings. Other unit operations and well as changes in process operations are explored for potential energy savings. The use of cogeneration as a method for net energy savings is explored and appears to be most promising, especislly where it is possible to upgrade the value of waste heat or combustible by-products in the process plant to produce steam and electrical energy which can be utilized or sold to others. A formal energy audit of process plants is suggested utilizing for engineering, operating as well as management personnel.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-87-09-71.pdf (1.318Mb)
Duncan, J. D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Over the past 10 years energy costs at Union Carbide's Texas City Plant have risen tremendously. Most of this increase can be related to the rapid escalation in fuel prices. Because of the large cost increases and impact on product flow, it has become necessary to accurately measure energy usage (primarily fuel and steam) throughout the plant. There are currently several projects in the million dollar range to upgrade and add new metering to these flows. This paper will discuss the justification of one of these projects and give a brief overview of the project status.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-60.pdf (1.474Mb)