Browsing IETC - Industrial Energy Technology Conference by Title
Jen, D. P. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1983)[more][less]
Abstract: Computerized facilities automation and energy management systems can be used to maintain high levels of facilities operations efficiencies. The monitoring capabilities provides the current equipment and process status, and the analysis capabilities can help pinpoint the equipment performance level and variations. The arithmetic and logic capabilities can be used to generate sophisticated and interactive control strategies. The communications capabilities provide management information through use of terminals, displays, printed reports and graphics. The keyboard function allows a wide range of operator inquiries and commands.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-83-04-92.pdf (2.019Mb)
Bynum, H. D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), June 1986)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper reviews the current state of technology as digital systems continue rapid evolution and migration into facility control and automation roles. This digital evolution encompasses control systems, management and automation systems, and networking and communication systems. As these three technologies are slowly maturing, energy conservative systems such as thermal storage and cogeneration are being more frequently used. Energy management control strategies required for the energy systems are more effective when the global facility digital system communication network and global data base is considered and utilized. As networked global digital control and automation systems evolve, common global data bases including manufacturing, energy control, and process control are being defined, and provided to provide a new level of facility wide automated management and control.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-86-06-15.pdf (1.018Mb)
Marson, T. F. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1980)[more][less]
Abstract: Many Plant Engineers profess to need help organizing and establishing a comprehensive, continuing energy management program. This paper describes the methods utilized to establish the State and National award-winning programs at 3M. Also described is a systems monitoring concept designed to predict, monitor and control energy use in major buildings. The B.S.E.S. (Building Specific Energy System) measures building cooling-heat demand, compares against specific building standards and reports on a continuous basis.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-80-04-26.pdf (1.102Mb)
Fan Aerodynamic Performance Guarantees: Do Your Policies, Procedures and Penalties Provide Adequate Certainty?Kaufman, S. G.; Martin, V.; Falk, M. A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2004)[more][less]
Abstract: With few exceptions, fan vendors do not provide a written guarantee regarding aerodynamic performance. Some fan vendors even go so far as to state in their terms and conditions of sale that fan performance is not guaranteed unless it is specifically reque
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-04-04-26.pdf (454.1Kb)
Monroe, R. C. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1985)[more][less]
Abstract: Axial fans are used for thousands of industrial applications consuming millions of kilowatts daily. The decision that saves dollars is to either automatically change fan speed or change blade pitch to save up to 50 percent of consumed power over a fixed pitch, constant speed fan. A discussion of the merits of each type is presented with actual test results.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-85-05-138.pdf (584.6Kb)
Fan System Effects: How Fan Ductwork Design Impacts Overall System Efficiency and What the Approach Should be for OptimizationMartin, V. (Energy Systems Laboratory, May 2009)[more][less]
Abstract: "In order to establish the aerodynamic performance characteristics of a custom fan or even a line of fans, the accepted practice of the industry is to carry out testing on a scale model in a laboratory to develop its fan performance curve. Then by applying affinity laws in conjunction with very specific rules that address scaling issues, the performance characteristics of geometrically similar fans can be predicted. These affinity laws (frequently referred to as fan laws) also allow the performance of fans operating at different speeds or handling gases at different density values to be accurately predicted. However, it is often found that even fans with well defined and pedigreed performance curves are unable to meet their performance expectations once they are installed on the systems for which they have been sold. This is primarily due to the adverse aerodynamic impact of the inlet or outlet connections on the performance capacity of the fan and thus on the overall system efficiency. The general term for design conditions at inlets or outlets of fans that cause deficient aerodynamic performance is ‘system effects’. The characteristics of fan system effects are that they reduce fan capacity and are both velocity and geometry dependent. On the inlet side of a fan, this generally characterizes itself by a flow pattern that is highly non‐uniform. On the discharge side, the high and low velocity flow streams leaving the fan may simply be prevented from redeveloping a uniform flow profile and normal static pressure conversion before encountering a disturbance. The term can also apply to system elements such as silencers, elbows and transitions. For these components, the actual pressure drop across them may be significantly higher than their calculated or rated values if the velocity profile of the entering flow is skewed or non‐uniform. For either case (fan connection or system component), the result is that additional power will be required to address the flow rate required by the system. In many instances, system designers are simply unfamiliar with the importance of understanding system effects as it pertains to new fan selections and the attendant power requirements. At a minimum, a reasonable approach for new fan projects should be to establish the theoretical system effect of connection designs by using a recognized document such as Air Movement and Control Association Publication 201. The objective should be to first minimize their impact through appropriate connection design modifications in conjunction with potential fan inlet and outlet re‐orientation. Once the system effects are minimized, the residual value should be applied to the fan performance specification in order to ensure that the fan is selected for the required aerodynamic capacity. For system components, an approach that has proved to be of significant value is to predict the flow pattern using computation fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling tools and in this process, the design can be tweaked until the designer finds the overall pressure drops of a system are minimized to the greatest practical extent. Similarly, CFD can be used to predict the flow profile at a fan inlet to ensure that it is as uniform as practically possible. This paper reviews the concept of system effects from the perspective of fan power requirements and provides a methodology for approaching system design from the perspective of optimizing fan energy use while achieving the required system capacity."
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-09-05-27.pdf (314.3Kb)
Menuchin, Y.; Singh, K. P.; Hirota, N. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1981)[more][less]
Abstract: A study of currently available commercial codes which evaluate the thermal performance of turbine cycles in power plants is presented. The analytical basis, capabilities, and possible applications of these codes are described. A survey of some user utilities has revealed their strengths and limitations. This paper examines some actual cases where the use of existing codes is either inconvenient or not satisfactory, and might produce somewhat inaccurate or incomplete results. A brief outline of a computer program that can overcome some of these weaknesses is given.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-81-04-76.pdf (1.339Mb)
Phelps, S. B.; Kissock, J. K. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1997)[more][less]
Abstract: Up until now, most of the literature on fuel cell cogeneration describes cogeneration at commercial sites. In this study, a PC25C phosphoric acid fuel cell cogeneration system was designed for an industrial facility and an economic analysis was performed. The US DOE Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) database was examined to determine what industry considers a good investment for energy saving measures. Finally, the results of the cogeneration analysis and database investigation were used to project the conditions in which the PC25C might be accepted by industry. Analysis of IAC database revealed that energy conservation recommendations with simple paybacks as high as five years have a 40% implementation rate; however, using current prices the simple payback of the PC25C fuel cell exceeds the likely lifetime of the machine. One drawback of the PC25C for industrial cogeneration is that the temperature of heat delivered is not sufficient to produce steam, which severely limits its usefulness in many industrial settings. The cost effectiveness of the system is highly dependent on energy prices. A five year simple payback can be achieved if the cost of electricity is $0.10/kWh or greater, or if the cost of the fuel cell decreases from about $3,500/kW to $950/kW. On the other hand, increasing prices of natural gas make the PC25C less economically attractive.
Files in this item: 2ESL-IE-97-04-50.pdf (4099.Kb)(more files)
Federal Support for Energy Efficiency in U.S. Industry: Collaboratively Addressing Energy Management in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)Bostrom, P.; Lung, R. B.; Harris, J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2010)[more][less]
Abstract: The U.S. industrial sector consumes about one-third of energy in the United States each year. Improving energy efficiency in an industrial environment may come with a host of benefits to the facility owner, including a reduction in annual energy expenses, lower maintenance costs, increased productivity, and improved profitability; but sector-wide improvements in industrial energy efficiency represent even greater advancements to a collective federal agenda relating to the economy, energy, and the environment. Multiple federal agencies-U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Department of Labor and the U.S. Small Business Administration-have taken a keen interest in industrial energy efficiency due to its clear links to the creation and retention of quality jobs, U.S. economic competitiveness, domestic energy security and global climate change. This paper explores successful industrial energy efficiency programs established by various federal agencies, as well as emerging collaborative initiatives designed to enhance energy efficiency across U.S. small- and medium-sized manufacturers (SMMs). Authors investigate which of these programs have experienced traction and success among SMMs, as well as the best methods to engage SMMs at the local level. Additionally, this paper identifies existing barriers hindering energy efficiency within SMMs and discusses interagency opportunities to expand the reach and efficacy of federal energy-efficiency resources.
Files in this item: 2ESL-IE-10-05-28.pdf (912.1Kb)(more files)
Federal/Industry Development of Energy-Conserving Technologies for the Chemical and Petroleum Refining IndustriesAlston, T. G.; Humphrey, J. L. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1981)[more][less]
Abstract: Argonne National Laboratory has started a program to identify future RD&D projects that (i) promise cost-effective savings of scarce fuels in the chemical and petroleum refining industries, (ii) are not likely to be pursued by industry alone. This program, sponsored by the Office of Industrial Programs of DOE, defines technology needs from an industry viewpoint, so that recommended projects will complement industry's efforts and result in technologies for which there are clearly identifiable markets. The search for RD&D projects is currently focusing in the following technology categories: (i) reduction of fouling in cooling water systems, (ii) alternatives to conventional distillation and separation, (iii) low level waste heat recovery, (iv) advanced concepts in furnaces and boilers, (v) coal utilization, and (vi) advanced concepts in conversion and processing. The future direction of the program will continue to be dictated largely by industry needs.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-81-04-27.pdf (881.7Kb)
McCormack, G.; Pavone, T. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), June 1990)[more][less]
Abstract: The high level of current profitability within the petrochemical industry has spurred an unprecedented number of announcements of new global capacity. Many of the announcements have been made by organizations with no previous background in petrochemicals, who believe they possess strategic competitive advantages for success in the business. The choice of cracking feedstocks has a tremendous impact on the future economic success of the venture. Feedstock determines the two major economic variables in ethylene plants: first cost and operating cost. For any particular ethylene plant design capacity, there is a range in investment cost, driven primarily by the choice of feedstock. In addition, feedstock costs represent over two-thirds of plant operating costs. This study presents the results of SRI work on determining the economics of ethylene plants based upon five alternative feedstocks, and then modifying the data for 10 global regions in which significant new ethylene capacity has been announced. The five feedstocks considered are: ethane, propane, butane, wide range naphtha, and atmospheric gas oil. The 10 regions considered in the study are the US Gulf Coast, Brazil, Western Canada, China, Indonesia, Japan, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Taiwan, and West Germany. The business climate considered in the study is the second half of 1989, and the market prices used for feedstock, utilities, products and labor represent average contract prices during the fourth quarter of 1989.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-90-06-09.pdf (2.953Mb)
Jendrucko, R. J.; Mitchell, D. S.; Snyder, W. T.; Symonds, F. W. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1980)[more][less]
Abstract: The University of Tennessee is one of three universities selected by the Industrial Energy Conservation Program of the Department of Energy to develop and demonstrate the concept of an Energy Analysis and Diagnostics Center (EADC). The objective of the EADC program is to develop and demonstrate the methodology through which universities may provide assistance to small manufacturing firms in identifying and analyzing energy conservation opportunities. The University of Tennessee EADC has completed 52 industrial energy audits of Tennessee manufacturing firms from which over 150 feasible ECO's have been identified and analyzed. The process consists of the following steps: (1) Analyzing energy consumption and costs for a two year period; (2) Conducting a one day on-site energy audit; (3) Analyzing each ECO for potential energy consumption and cost savings; (4) Preparing a technical report to the firm which contains specific recommendations of economically feasible ECO's; (5) Providing the firm with the appropriate financial analysis. The main emphasis of the process is on quantification of potential energy savings so that the firm has the necessary quantitative data for making a capital investment decision. The average benefit cost ratio of the EADC program has been calculated to be approximately 8. Reduction in annual energy consumption identified from the ECO's was approximately 13% and reduction in annual energy costs was approximately 10%. The entire process is described in sufficient detail to permit other universities to follow the field tested methodology and develop their own programs.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-80-04-131.pdf (938.6Kb)
Field Verification of Energy and Demand Savings of Two Injection Molding Machines Retrofitted with Variable Frequency DrivesLiou, S. P.; Aguiar, D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1999)[more][less]
Abstract: Detailed field measurements of energy consumption (kWh) and demand (kW) are conducted on two injection molding machines (IMMs) used in a typical plastic manufacturing facility in the San Francisco Bay Area, with/without Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) respectively. Significant energy and demand savings are verified for Injection Molding Machines (IMMs) retrofitted with VFDs. With the help of a digital oscilloscope, we made the power Quality measurements also. We will discuss the experience we have learned and the equipment requirements for this type of field measurement exercises.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-99-05-09.pdf (3.637Mb)
Bush, W. M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), June 1986)[more][less]
Abstract: The high heat value of the plant's treated wastewater gave the economic edge to electric space conditioning, the major driver critical to the sale of the all-electric combination of space conditioning, lighting and modernization. With this head start in a heat source furnished by the "bath water" of the thousands of homes in the community, we were able to recommend a system of heat recovery refrigeration cycles that would provide space conditioning at a fraction of the cost of natural gas. The all-electric recommendation was accepted because it offered substantially lower operating costs and its concept matched the state-of- the-art theme of the project and was developed with the full cooperation of the consultant. The final design, a state-of-the-art sludge dewatering system, resulted in a project with a space heating system having an operating cost one-third that of natural gas, four times more efficient than commonly used systems, and a lighting system equal to or exceeding IES standards. In all respects, the "Filter Press Building" exemplifies the ultimate all-electric application.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-86-06-94.pdf (1.092Mb)
Financial Impact of Good Condenser Vacuum in Industrial Steam Turbines: Computer Modeling TechniquesViar, W. L. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: Industrial turbine throttle conditions are fixed by plant designs - materials of construction, steam requirements, etc. Condensing turbine exhaust conditions are limited by the atmosphere to which residual heat is rejected; and are fixed by installed condenser surface area and the steam space characteristics. Since the steam rate and shaft power costs are dependent on the available enthalpy drop across the machine, the steam must condense at the lowest practical thermal state. Thus, air presence and cooling rate must be controlled. The condensing turbine is not an isolated system. It directly affects the use of boiler fuel and the purchase of power. Its condensate requires reheating to feedwater temperature: steam is used, backpressure power is made, for example. Its performance affects the entire steam system and must be monitored persistently. Because of the complexities (and advantages) of systems analyses, computer modeling is demonstrated in this paper to fully evaluated the network effects and the financial impact of good condenser vacuum.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-84-04-54.pdf (3.715Mb)
Young, R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1982)[more][less]
Abstract: The 1980's will be a decade of intense adjustment by busine3s to the cost of money and energy. American Industry will require enormous amounts of capital for energy conservation to remain competitive. However, the average 3.8 percent after tax profit generated by energy intensive industries will not be sufficient to provide the capital required for both normal business expansion and energy conservation projects. Debt financing for energy saving equipment will adversely impact balance sheet figures and liquidity. It appears that only a few of the largest industrial firms have the cash flow to internally finance energy conserving cost reduction projects. These cost reduction projects will reinforce existing dominant cost advantages of industry leaders.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-82-04-02.pdf (775.7Kb)
Dingwall, D. C. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: Energy conservation as a formal program in Dow originated in the early 1970's. From 1972 until the end of 1983, DOW recorded an energy performance improvement in excess of 30%. The essential features of the energy conservation program which contributed to this improvement include: ( a) awareness of prudent utilization of energy, (b) process improvements, and (c) more efficient generation of energy. The latter two features require capital. Process improvements tend to be numerous, smaller in size, and authorized and financed as a part of Dow's regular capital program. Capital projects relating to the more efficient generation of energy generally refer to DOW'S large Gulf Coast combined cycle cogeneration projects, most of which came on stream during the period 1981-1983. These projects have been generally large capital installations where separate
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-84-04-02.pdf (2.541Mb)
Elliott, R. N.; Weidenbaum, A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1994)[more][less]
Abstract: The New York State Energy Office Energy Investment Loan Program has a uniquely successful track record on financing industrial energy efficiency projects. The program is conducted in cooperation with 105 financial institutions in New York State and offers loan-interest subsidies for energy-efficiency projects. Since 1987 the program has financed over a hundred industrial and agricultural sector projects for a total of loan amounts of almost $16 million. Annual energy savings are estimated at $4.26 million. Almost half the projects have involved process modifications that yielded the largest share of the savings from all loans in the sector. The average payback for projects involving process modifications was 5.7 years, and the average cost to the state of the program is 29¢ for each dollar of project cost. Other programs by utilities and the state energy office complement the loan program, contributing to its success.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-94-04-23.pdf (3.571Mb)
Ertle, J. M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1994)[more][less]
Abstract: In the 1990's, many organizations are attempting to do more, faster, with less cost and improved quality. In many cases, this involves improving the efficiency of their systems. Increased competition is creating pressure to continuously improve in order to effectively compete in the marketplace. One obvious method of reducing costs and improving productivity is to upgrade old, antiquated equipment such as lighting to more modern energy efficient systems. Most projects provide a return on investment to the owner in several years, through energy and demand savings, Power Utility rebates, maintenance savings and increased productivity, however, the initial capital expense required is cost prohibitive. Budget constraints, a lengthy and complicated approval process and large up-front capital requirements are only a few "road blocks" to improvement. In order to make an equipment acquisition, every company must consider how they will pay for it! How do companies acquire the equipment they need to be more competitive? One cost effective solution -FINANCING! There are numerous benefits to both the end user customer (Lessee) and the installing contractor from utilizing financing to upgrade or retrofit to energy efficient systems. It is possible to provide design, material, installation, maintenance and soft costs as well as positive cash flow to the end user by structuring financing terms and payments around the energy savings. A wide array of programs and services are offered by many different financial organizations.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-94-04-26.pdf (2.483Mb)