Browsing IETC - Industrial Energy Technology Conference by Title
Hindmarsh, E.; Boland, D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1987)[more][less]
Abstract: Recent technological developments have led to the creation of the rigorous simulation models for ethylene plants which can be run in concert with advanced, thermodynamic “pinch” procedures. This new approach enables operators to determine the potential for improvement- in true global terms- and provides an economically sound strategy for working towards the identified target.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-87-09-58.pdf (1.426Mb)
Lin, M. C.; Northrup, J. I.; Smith, E. D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1997)[more][less]
Abstract: Industrial facilities operated by the Department of Defense consume large amounts of energy and emit significant quantities of air pollutants. Recent Executive Orders issued by the President set goals for increased energy efficiency and reduced emissions which must be met by these industrial facilities. These new energy and environmental directives in most instances exceed the performance capabilities of DoD's installed industrial technologies. Cost-effective compliance with these directives in the existing DoD industrial base will require a thorough evaluation of DoD industrial activities and their potential for improvements. Understanding the energy-use patterns and options in DoD production sites could be invaluable in identifying energy and emission reduction opportunities. Under the sponsorship of the Federal Energy Management program, the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (US ACERL) initiated a project to identify energy and pollution reduction opportunities in processes at DoD industrial facilities in which reduced energy consumption can, via energy efficiency and operational improvements, simultaneously bring about significant reduction of pollutant emissions. In this project, major DoD industrial energy-consuming activities were screened and qualitatively evaluated with respect to their potential to emit pollutants. Site visits were made to representative bases, one for each of the three services, to (1) collect and evaluate available energy consumption/emissions data, (2) directly observe various types of process activities and operations, (3) examine facility conditions, and (4) recommend energy conservation opportunities to reduce energy use and pollution. Based on the opportunities identified, as well as data from other studies and a review of other installations, estimates of generalized DoD-wide process energy savings were developed. A significant amount of potential energy savings were identified. It is recommended that additional work would be beneficial to develop a process database with equipment inventory as well as energy consumption information at DoD industrial facilities, which could then be used to identify and evaluate specific opportunities.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-97-04-30.pdf (6.221Mb)
Polley, G. T.; Pugh, S. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 2002)[more][less]
Abstract: Worrell & Price (at a paper presented at the Industrial Energy Technology Conference organised by Texas A&M University and held in Houston in May 2001) examined the potential of over 50 emerging energy efficient technologies covering a range of industries. In terms of projected implemented fuel savings achievable by the year 2015, minimisation of fouling in crude oil systems was found to be the second most significant of the technologies considered. It yielded a potential fuel saving of 123 TBtu (130 PJ) in the USA. The next step proposed for the development of the technology was R&D. Over the last year ESDU International, with support from the UK Government's Energy Best Practice Scheme, have been examining how these R&D needs can be identified and met.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-02-04-20.pdf (5.288Mb)
Terrill, T. J.; Brown, M. L.; Cheyne, R. W. Jr.; Cousins, A. J.; Daniels, B. P.; Erb, K. L.; Garcia, P. A.; Leutermann, M. J.; Nel, A. J.; Robert, C. L.; Widger, S. B.; Williams, A. G.; Rasmussen, B. P. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2013)[more][less]
Abstract: Studies estimate that as much as 50% of packaged air conditioning systems operate in faulty conditions that degrade system efficiency. Common faults include: under- and over-charged systems (too much or too little refrigerant), faulty expansions valves (stuck valves, valve hunting, poorly tuned valve controllers), and fouled evaporators and condensers. Furthermore, air conditioning systems can often be adjusted to improve efficiency while continuing to meet cooling loads (adjusting system pressures, decreasing superheat setpoints). This study presents the design of a low cost device that can non-invasively measure system operating conditions, diagnose faults, estimate potential energy savings, and provide recommendations on how the system should be adjusted or repaired. Using eight external temperature measurements, the device potentially can detect and diagnose up to ten faults commonly found in HVAC systems. Steady state temperatures are compared to threshold values obtained from literature and HVAC manufacturers to detect and determine the severity of faults and subsequent reductions in coefficient of performance. Preliminary tests reveal the potential for the device to detect and diagnose common efficiency-degrading faults in HVAC systems.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-13-05-37.pdf (1.331Mb)
Ahner, D. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1988)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper discusses the maximizing of Regional Cogeneration Energy Savings utilizing various technologies and fuels within a given service region. A methodology is developed to establish the allocation of power to the individual cogenerators such that overall energy economic benefits are maximized while process steam needs are simultaneously satisfied. Application of the methodology is illustrated and discussed.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-88-09-24.pdf (1.334Mb)
Hoffman, A. R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1981)[more][less]
Abstract: The Energy Productivity Center of the Mellon Institute is engaged in a 2-year study to identify opportunities for improved U.S. industrial energy productivity. A distinguishing feature is the focus on energy services provided when fuels are consumed. The paper describes the Center's Least-Cost Energy Strategy, the Industrial Energy Productivity Project, and presents least-cost results for 1978 and for energy markets over the next two decades.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-81-04-39.pdf (1.801Mb)
Chari, S. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), March 1993)[more][less]
Abstract: In this paper, guidelines for identifying energy savings opportunities in industrial plants are discussed. The analytical approach used in this discussion stems from the fundamental principle that the total energy into and out of any process is constant. The starting point for identifying energy saving opportunities is to balance the equation INPUT = OUTPUT + LOSSES. Subsequent steps are devoted to identifying the causes for losses, and the means to reduce losses. The ultimate goal is to increase the ratio of output to input energy. Though the primary goal in this exercise is often energy conservation, there are many instances where substantial productivity gains result. Thus, the paper will also discuss other process benefits and possible disadvantages. The basic concept to remember in the whole exercise is that any energy using processes can be expressed in terms the following end-uses: • Motive Power Applications • Heat Transfer Applications • Electrolysis (Ion Exchange) Applications • Lighting Applications.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-93-03-16.pdf (8.096Mb)
Harrell, G.; Jendrucko, R.; Wright, A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2004)[more][less]
Abstract: The U.S. DOE BestPractices Steam "Steam System Assessment Tool" (SSAT) is a powerful tool for quantifying potential steam improvement opportunities in steam systems. However, all assessment tools are only as good as the validity of the modeling inputs.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-04-04-03.pdf (449.9Kb)
Venable, K.; Bhatia, D.; Coverick, R.; Gutierrez, C.; Knight, J.; McGarry, D.; McGee, K.; Smith, Z.; Terrill, T. J.; Vanderford, B.; Weiser, R.; Wightman, K.; Rasmussen, B. P. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2013)[more][less]
Abstract: Buildings are responsible for approximately 40% of all US energy use and carbon emissions. Lighting technologies continue to evolve, leading to potential energy savings through retrofits of lighting systems. Building lighting systems is typically the first item evaluated by commercial and industrial energy auditors. This paper presents the first phase of a project to develop unmanned aerial and ground vehicles capable of conducting autonomous energy audits of commercial buildings. The paper presents a prototype system that can enumerate and classify the lighting in a building using an optical camera, accelerometer, spectrometer, and distance sensor. As the aerial vehicle navigates throughout a room, the prototype system captures images and collects frequency data of lighting. The system employs image recognition techniques to quantify lighting in each room. Using the unique frequency spectrum of each lighting type, the prototype system classifies the different types of lighting with the spectrometer. An accompanying software program then analyzes the quantity and type of lighting to recommend economical alternatives, or lighting retrofits.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-13-05-39.pdf (1.382Mb)
Mehta, P. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 2007)[more][less]
Abstract: The need for energy efficiency captured the attention of all sectors of our society in 1973 when an Oil Embargo was imposed by the oil producing and exporting countries. Interest in energy efficiency continued during the 1980s primarily due to environmental concerns and secondarily because of economic and industrial competitiveness issues. Recent energy supply disruptions caused by hurricanes Katrina and Rita have generated a renewed interest in energy efficiency. Oil Embargo of 1973 was termed as “energy crisis” and “energy problem” in the industrialized countries. However, the technocrats took it as a challenge and as an opportunity. As a result of their work, to-day our refrigerators are twice as efficient, heating furnaces are one-third more efficient, cars are one-half more efficient, and light bulbs are four times as efficient. Interest in energy efficiency during the 1980s by the U. S. Government and its outcome became very handy when Katrina and Rita hit last year. The Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) had developed several energy efficient programs such as Best Practices Tools. Some of these tools are Air- Master, Motor Master, Steam System Analysis Tool (SSAT), Process Heating Analysis and Survey Tool (PHAST), Pumping System Analysis Tool (PSAT), Fans System Analysis Tool (FSAT) and the list goes on. Not only that, DOE had trained some Qualified Specialists to use these tools. As a result of these available resources, Save Energy Now (SEN) was the response from the DOE to the impacts of Katrina and Rita. Two Hundred Energy Saving Assessments (ESAs) were conducted for the most energy intensive manufacturers. This paper describes some details of the experiences and impacts of some of these ESAs. Some case studies are discussed in this paper.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-07-05-30.pdf (310.6Kb)
Lechtanski, J. B. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1989)[more][less]
Abstract: As a society, we have grown increasingly dependent on a group of chemicals broadly referred to as CFC's. These compounds play an essential role in a surprising number of applications including commercial, industrial and residential uses. Recent studies have linked CFC's to the deterioration of the earth's ozone layer. This paper discusses the connection between CFC's and ozone, pending regulations which will affect the production, purchase and use of CFC's and the impacts and options available to those organizations who use CFC's and will be affected by these regulations.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-89-09-13.pdf (7.002Mb)
Kasten, D. J.; Muller, M. R.; Pavlovic, F. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 2002)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper explores many of the changes in typical industrial assessment recommendations, which have resulted from deregulation of the electric and gas industries. While anticipating that energy efficiency would almost always be a good idea, changes in rate structures and indeed the very nature of how energy is purchased can put some energy efficiency technologies outside of normal economically acceptable ranges. A major focus will be changes in and the elimination of time-of-use rates for electricity. An entire generation of DSM'ers (people working in "Demand-Side Management") worked under the principle that there was economic benefit to load leveling. Time-of-use rates are changing throughout the country and in many cases disappearing. Bulk purchase of electricity has even resulted in cases where, with minimum consumption requirements, industrial plants need to find ways to increase their electrical use to avoid penalties. Energy storage devices including thermal energy storage must be re-examined in terms of this new paradigm. There are applications where they are advisable, but for different reasons then demand management. Another area of particular interest is fuel selection, multiply fuel capability, and contracting. An industrial assessment at two neighboring plants can result in entirely different recommendations based on how energy is purchased and billed. In many cases, an industrial plant may be better off spending resources on energy purchasing agents as opposed to anything like an energy efficiency project. Onsite generation of power and the changing rationales for its adoption has also experienced big changes. Energy security is becoming a strong motivation for industrial plants, options are increased, and third party funding is also starting to appear. Intermediate solutions like gas driven compressors bring these two areas together and leave industrial clients with more options but often more confusion than ever before. Finally, the paper discusses some of the new challenges facing an industrial assessment team in terms of information gathering. It is becoming necessary to examine many possible energy purchase options and each has ramifications on energy efficiency projects. Use of the Internet, computer tools and other information sources is presented.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-02-04-35.pdf (4.294Mb)
Rebello, W. J.; Peterson, G. R.; Sohal, M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1988)[more][less]
Abstract: Since the mid-seventies, the manufacturing industries trend towards energy conservation has spurred both heat exchanger makers and users to try novel techniques for heat transfer enhancement. Augmentation techniques, applied to the fluids that have the major thermal resistance, can increase the overall heat exchanger. Enhancement techniques can also be used to upgrade the capacity of an existing heat exchanger, to reduce the approach temperature difference between two process streams, thereby conserving energy in the process and to reduce pumping power, thereby reducing operating costs. This paper attempts to quantify the impact of enhancement on energy savings and capital costs. The overall heat exchanger market was divided into four sectors: the chemical, petroleum, electrical utility and other industries. The total U.S. sales of all industrial heat exchangers, except boilers and automotive radiators, was approximately $1.6 billion (about 285,000 units) in 1982. About 59% of the total represented liquid-to-liquid shell and tube heat exchangers and this were the biggest impact from heat transfer enhancement can be made. If enhancement techniques were implemented throughout the industries considered in this study, the maximum potential energy savings, i.e. less energy used from the hot utility or less energy discarded to the cold utility because of superior heat transfer in the heat exchangers, could amount to about 2.5 Quad. Alternatively, if one were to consider the reduction in heat exchanger surface area requirements for a given heat duty because of enhanced heat transfer, the capital cost savings would amount to 350 million annually. Research recommendations in enhanced heat transfer include the development of cost effective manufacturing techniques for ceramic and metal construction materials and investigations into the effects of heat transfer enhancement on fouling and corrosion.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-88-09-27.pdf (1.468Mb)
Williams, M. M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1981)[more][less]
Abstract: As the price of energy rises, changes in industrial electric rates will have an impact on energy usage and conservation. Utilities interested in reducing system peak demands may reflect this need in the rate structure as an incentive for the industrial customer to alter their present operation. Utilities recognize that industry offers the greatest potential for peak load reduction.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-81-04-131.pdf (887.1Kb)
Richardson, J. A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: A few years ago our response to an inquiry regarding availability of electric service for a large industrial load was something like: 'Let us put this into our production model to determine whether we will have adequate generating capacity to commit to your needs plus load increases under contract and anticipated residential and commercial load growth. If our studies show that we will have generating capacity available, then we should allow a minimum of two years for design and construction. Of course, you will need to plan to build and maintain your substation.' Today our response would be more like 'How soon can you be ready? Can we build and/or maintain your substation for you? Perhaps we can locate a transformer for you to use until permanent facilities are in place?' What has happened to utilities such as GSU to change our perspective so quickly? The turn around began around New Years of 82 with the realization by industry that the recession which had been developing for some 6 months in retail and construction areas was now affecting basic industry. Later we learned that this recession was the most severe and long lasting in this country since the great depression of the 1930's and that fundamental changes would be required by basic industry if it were to survive. Resulting plant reductions and closings severely impacted utilities heavily dependent on industrial business.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-84-04-44.pdf (1.973Mb)
Cheek, K. F.; Pillay, P.; Dudley, K. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1995)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper uses MotorMaster and Vaughen's Complete Price Guide to determine payback periods for different motor failure scenarios. Some scenarios considered are rewinds, reconditions, and replacement of bearings. Prices for these repairs are obtained from Vaughen's Complete Price Guide, and MotorMaster is used to compute the payback periods. The repair prices and the resulting payback periods are then compared to the prices and payback periods if new SE or EE motors were used.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-95-04-06.pdf (6.141Mb)
Schlesinger, B. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1982)[more][less]
Abstract: Major analysis completed recently by the gas transmission and distribution industry concludes that available supplies of gas energy will fall into the range of 23-31 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) by the year 2000, as conventional gas production is increasingly supplemented by supplies from coal gasification, Alaska, unconventional sources, LNG, Canada, and Mexico. At the same time, however, gas demand is characterized by price-induced conservation in all markets, together with continuing gas demand constraints and financial burdens imposed by Government regulators at all levels. With these restrictions and burdens eased, the gas industry can rebuild its marketing acumen and capacity. Thus, gas demand may likely increase in both the traditional heating and industrial fuel and feedstock applications, as well as such new non-traditional uses as cogeneration, natural gas vehicles and select gas use with coal. With regard to impending gas price decontrol, analyses conducted by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.), as well as studies by the U.S. Department of Energy and other groups, concur in the important finding that natural gas will be able to compete with alternate fuels in the energy marketplace after decontrol, as long as indefinite price escalators and other rigidities in gas purchase contracts can be defused so as to enable the market system to operate successfully. A.G.A.'s analysis, indeed, concluded that gas prices are rising rapidly enough under the existing law between now and 1985, so that concerns of a sudden price increase after deregulation in that year may be somewhat overstated, as long as the indefinite price escalators are defused.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-82-04-56.pdf (1.373Mb)
Elliott, R. N. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 2009)[more][less]
Abstract: The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 enacted new motor efficiency standards that will go into effect in December 2010. Previous motor efficiency standards, which were implemented as part of EPAct in 1992, caused some confusion within the motor marketplace. In part, this confusion lead to the development of NEMA’s Premium® label, which has since helped guide motor purchasers to buy efficient motors. As a companion activity, the awareness program Motor Decisions Matter was established to encourage the replacement of motors with more efficient technology rather than the repair of old, inefficient motors. The motor marketplace now faces similar confusion as the new standards will soon be implemented. It is therefore incumbent upon industrial motor users to begin planning for these standards now, both by developing new motor management plans and by updating repair/replace decision criteria to reflect changes in efficiency and price for motor replacement options. At the same time, it is incumbent upon motor efficiency programs and policymakers to address the anticipated negative market behavior trends that will likely result from the new standards’ implementation in the next few years.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-09-05-26.pdf (333.0Kb)
Impact of the Texas A&M University Industrial Assessment Center on Energy Conservation Behavior of Small to Medium-Sized Manufacturing FirmsEggebrecht, J. A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1995)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper presents the results of a study of the impact of 200 industrial energy surveys performed by the Texas A&M University Industrial Assessment Center (IAC). A description of the industries served and the typical results of surveys is given. Information is presented regarding the implementation of the recommended energy conservation opportunities (ECOs), including the details of an investigation of the "persistence of savings" of these implemented projects.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-95-04-14.pdf (5.961Mb)
Medina, M. A.; Elkassabgi, Y.; Farahmand, K.; Bhalavat, M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1997)[more][less]
Abstract: An Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) was established at Texas A&M University-Kingsville in November 1993 by the U. S. Department of Energy. The Center is managed by the University City Science Center, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. During the period of November, 93 through July, 96 the Center conducted 65 energy audits of small and medium sized manufacturing plants in South Texas. The Center's chief purpose is to serve the energy and waste related needs of small and medium sized manufacturers. The findings were reported to the manufacturers, together with estimates of their savings, implementation costs, and payback periods. By the end of July, 1996, the center had performed 65 industrial survey and had recommended over 388 Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECOs) and 53 Waste Minimization Opportunities (WMOs). During this time, the IAC estimated energy savings totaled 158,906 MMBtu/year (7.6 percent of total energy usage) for a total savings of over $1.89 million (9.3 percent of total energy costs). The waste assessment audits have estimated a total of $1.14 million in waste reductions costs (10.5 percent of total waste related costs). This paper describes the Center, its mission, and its impact in South Texas. The estimated average savings per plant including energy and waste reductions was approximately $81,030/yr.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-97-04-43.pdf (3.152Mb)