Browsing IETC - Industrial Energy Technology Conference by Title
Fletcher, R. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Energy is consumed, and wasted, in liberal amounts in the combustion processes which supply heat energy to boilers and process heaters. Close attention to combustion systems can be extremely beneficial: Optimum air to fuel ratios, i.e., maintaining the lowest excess air possible, for example, can produce big savings. Maintaining combustion equipment - from fuel preparation equipment through burners and controls in optimum operating condition also can save large amounts of energy, and keep a plant running smoothly without unexpected, disruptive and costly downtime. These are the subjects of this article.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-45.pdf (1.508Mb)
Hopkins, D.; Downing, T. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), June 1986)[more][less]
Abstract: Following evaluation of various CO monitors and close attention to the boiler operating conditions, Southwestern Public Service Company has been successful in reducing the operating level of oxygen in Unit #1 at Tolk Station. This paper will present the experience to this point indicating the value of the increased efficiency and the annual fuel savings possible from this O2 reduction. Unit til 1.8 a pulverized coal fired, 565 MW, CE boiler system placed in service July 27, 1982. Complete and safe combustion in this boiler is maintained by continuously monitoring O2 and CO in the boiler exhaust. The addition of CO monitors has enabled SPS to begin the process of establishing exhaust O2 levels at each firing rate. The CO signal is recorded and monitored, but it has not been used as an active element in closed loop control. The target CO level of 100-200 ppm produces an average O2 level of between 2.0% and 2.5%. Transient peaks of 1000 to 1200 ppm of CO are not unusual because CO production is affected by many process variables. SPS's selection of a multi-parameter CO/CO2/H2O instrument provide the ability to measure CO2 and CO and to validate accuracy of these components on-line by introduction of standard gases at stack temperature and pressure. Crosschecking the O2 monitor and the calculated O2 reading from the CO monitor, also, provides on-fine confirmation of each instrument. Experience also validates the relationship between CO, excess air and NOx production.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-86-06-107.pdf (1.204Mb)
Saman, N. F.; Johnson, H. (Energy Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, April 1994)[more][less]
Abstract: A methodology for a psychrometric analysis of the problem of maintaining space temperature and humidity in the digital switch environment is presented. Such spaces produce minimum or no humidity generation. Several different humidification schemes, including isothermal (steam generation) and adiabatic (evaporative cooling) were analyzed. In some cases, the addition of a steam humidifier to an air handling system with an outside air economizer cycle was seen to require more energy than running the same system on minimal outside air with mechanical refrigeration and substantially lower moisture load. Because individual locations will have different operational parameters, this sort of analysis is done by the design engineer as a tool in selection and design of an appropriate humidification system.
Description: The intent of this paper is to outline a simple methodology to compute cooling and humidification loads at any location, using a variety of techniques for space conditioning. Application of the methodology for a given location will yield a comparative estimate for the amount of energy used for different space conditioning strategies. Although there are numerous building energy calculation methods ranging from simple degree-day procedures to comprehensive and computerized procedures which simulate building heat transfer and system/equipment performance, the Bin Method was chosen for this analysis. With this method, simplified manual calculations that account for the significant parameters affecting the energy usage in buildings are possible. Bin data is given in tabular form as the number of hours per year in which the ambient temperature falls in a given 5 degree window. Inasmuch as coincident wet bulb and specific humidity are given for each dry bulb window, the Bin Method further provides means of evaluating annual humidification loads. Using this technique, different cooling and humidification strategies for the space can be evaluated.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-94-04-58.pdf (4.432Mb)
Porri, R. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1996)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper presents a decision making process that will permit the design, installation and operation of a high efficiency and reliable compressed air system. The design of a compressed air system was formerly limited to the selection of an air compressor large enough to deliver sufficient compressed air for the estimated system requirements. As system air requirements grew, additional compressors were added. Today, modern, high quality manufacturing facilities require a more scientific approach. Many manufacturing processes require strict controls over compressed air pressure, temperature and purity levels. Competitive pressures also force manufacturers to drive product and operating costs to an absolute minimum. This paper will detail the initial system design criteria that must be addressed prior to issuing procurement specifications. Once the system design criteria is determined, the equipment specification, selection and installation process will follow.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-96-04-32.pdf (1.598Mb)
Cohen, K. C. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1980)[more][less]
Abstract: Making education and training impact on anyone these days seems to be an increasing difficult problem. Perhaps one of the reasons we see this growing problem and our relative failure in attempts to make education and training more effective is that institutions and individual motivations, which we have traditionally relied upon to create an educated or trained person, are in a tremendous state of flux. In this paper I should like to explore factors or areas which impact on industrial training and education, and then present to you an innovative system which deals more effectively and more appropriately with each of these factors in order to create more effective programs. By more effective programs, I mean programs which are utilized by the individuals who are supposed to be "educated" or "trained" and which actually help them increase their productivity and performance levels on the job.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-80-04-42.pdf (974.8Kb)
Bishop, D. L. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1980)[more][less]
Abstract: Several years ago, a training session was being held at an electric generating plant in the Midwest. One of the subjects covered in the session was steamline drain traps. One of the trainees checked several of the steam traps when he went back on shift following the training session. He found that 2 of those that he checked had the bypass valves open, directly bypassing steam from the steamline to the condenser. He closed the bypass valves to put the traps into operation, as they should have been since the traps were operable. The condenser vacuum went up by one inch of mercury vacuum. The estimated savings as a result of this action were about $12,000 per week in coal costs!
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-80-04-138.pdf (1.027Mb)
Plaster, W. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Immense amounts of energy are being thrown away every day in petroleum refineries, chemical plants, and throughout all types of industrial operations. Much of this energy is at temperature levels below 350OF and is typically rejected to the atmosphere through cooling towers and air fin coolers. We will designate this as "low-level heat". Between 20 to 30% of all the energy that enters a plant is lost as low-level heat. In a 100,000 BPD refinery, this is the equivalent of about 2,500 BPD of oil, or 15 billion Btu's per day. If any improvement can be made in the recovery and reuse of this heat, the energy efficiency of our plants would be significantly increased.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-108.pdf (1.124Mb)
Morgan, S. W.; Parker, S. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1989)[more][less]
Abstract: The recent turnaround in the chemical industry has meant that contractors are once again competing vigorously for new plant orders. This has meant plant designs have required rapid evaluation and where necessary improvement to make the competitive in the current economic climate. One tool, mainly developed during the lean years, that has been used extensively for this task the Pinch Technology. Kellogg has found this technology invaluable and the correct use of it has led to significant improvements in plant designs. As an example of the benefits that can result from using Pinch Technology, the cold end of an ethylene flowsheet is examined. In this study energy savings are identified. However, the most significant savings come about through reducing heat exchanger surface area requirements.
Files in this item: 2ESL-IE-89-09-61.pdf (3.500Mb)(more files)
Gehl, P. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), March 1993)[more][less]
Abstract: The good computerized maintenance management systems available today provide Plant Engineers with sufficient data to institute policies and procedures to materially affect the company profits. Regrettably, the vast majority of these Engineers and their Maintenance Managers seem content to simply produce PM work orders, maintenance equipment repair histories and generate a few activity reports. A straightforward and practical application of the available cost and performance data enables maintenance management to constantly fine tune operational procedures to minimize cost and equipment failure from the available data. Using this data, the manager can easily measure the total effect of maintenance on his company's overall performance. The practical application of this data to reduce overall maintenance cost and to increase equipment availability is discussed in this paper.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-93-03-15.pdf (3.713Mb)
Olsen, C.; Kozman, T. A.; Lee, J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2008)[more][less]
Abstract: The objective of this research is to develop a management tool for analyzing combined heat and power (CHP) natural gas liquids (NGL) recovery systems. The methodology is developed around the central ideas of product recovery, possible recovery levels, and the flexibility of the process. These ideas led to the design of the CHP-NGL recovery system and the development of the equipment sizing and economic analysis methods. Requirements for sizing refrigeration units, heat exchangers, and pumps are discussed and demonstrated. From the data sheets it is possible to gather costs associated with the project and demonstrate the economic feasibility of the system. The amount of NGL recovered, heating value, payback period, cash flow, net present value of money, and the internal rate of return are calculated and demonstrated to be favorable to this project.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-08-05-41.pdf (503.4Kb)
Spencer, R. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1985)[more][less]
Abstract: A major responsibility of management is the control and containment of operating costs. Energy costs are a major portion of the industrial budget. GM has developed a 3 phase approach to energy conservation. Phase I -Administrative Controls. Effective administrative controls can only be implemented and maintained if the workforce is dedicated to conservation of energy. Energy audits, employee monitors, maintenance, can all be effective controls if the workforce supports them and management utilizes them. Phase II - Engineering Controls. Engineering controls include changes to processes and plant facilities. Cogeneration, high pressure sodium lighting, additional insulation and facility monitoring and control systems are examples. Phase III - Financial Controls. Financial controls or what GM calls Energy Responsibility Accounting (ERA) should be an integral part of management's energy conservation plan. With ERA and its associated metering, each management structure is held responsible and accountable for the energy it consumes.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-85-05-71.pdf (889.9Kb)
Rinz, W. H. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1980)[more][less]
Abstract: An on-line leak sealing program is an extremely effective method of cost savings to industrial plants. The dollars a plant saves can be direct and dramatic as in an avoided system shut-down or subtle and analytical as in a long term maintenance program. Either way, the cost savings are an important part of a complete leak sealing program; in addition, to dollars saved, noise is reduced, environment is safeguarded and energy is conserved.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-80-04-72.pdf (1.027Mb)
Almaguer, J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2006)[more][less]
Abstract: In 1991, the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) introduced “Eco- Efficiency” as a management strategy to link financial and environmental performance to create more value with less ecological impact. Based on this strategy, CETAC-WEST (Canadian Environmental Technology Advancement Corporation - West), in mid-2000, introduced a practical approach to eco-efficiency to Western Canada's upstream oil and gas sector. The CETAC-WEST Eco-Efficiency Program, focused primarily on sour gas processing facilities, has developed methods and programs to identify opportunities for energy conservation and GHG reductions. The program outlined in this paper consists of four interrelated phases that are used to identify and track efficiency opportunities as well as promote the use of energy efficient methodologies and technologies. If, as program results suggest, 15% to 20% of the gas that is now consumed at by plant operations can be saved through efficiencies, it would save $500 to $700 million worth of gas for sale on the market. Although this small Pilot Program in the gas processing sector has surfaced major opportunities, there are significantly greater opportunities in other sectors with high GHG emissions intensity, such as sweet gas processing, conventional oil, heavy oil and oil sands. Capturing these opportunities will require a carefully considered strategy. This strategy should include, in addition to commitments for expanding the scope of the current Program, sustained leadership by industry champions and by governments - all aimed at changing the operating mode and improving the culture in the oil and gas industry.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-06-05-04.pdf (482.0Kb)
Pavone, T. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), March 1993)[more][less]
Abstract: Most energy intensive product manufacturing organizations rely upon in-house plant organizations to provide their primary sources of energy: power, steam and fuel. Unlike the manufacturing side of the business, however, the energy supply side of the business has both an obligation to serve (like a regulated utility) and usually operates in the absence of direct competitive pressures. It is therefore subject to more opportunities for becoming inefficient. Many corporate managements have decided that staff support functions within their companies are therefore inherently inefficient, and need to be jettisoned. Consequently, it has become fashionable to announce massive support function terminations, accompanied by wholesale "outsourcing" of the same support functions. Within the process industries, outsourcing is nothing new, but the extent of it is becoming enormous. Companies that have long since eliminated their in-house project construction forces, design drafting forces, turnaround maintenance forces and equipment procurement staffs are now dumping their in-house process design capability, information systems capability, R&D capability, recurring maintenance capability, and in some cases their energy supply capability. Having recently completed 3 competitive benchmarking projects in the fields of capital project development, process plant field construction practices, and manufacturing maintenance practices, we believe that the lessons learned with respect to creating and managing competitive staff functions can be applied to in-house energy supply functions. This paper identifies the major differences between the best staff organizations and the average staff support organizations, why their performance record varies, and lessons for achieving the same results as the best organizations within the domain of an in-house staff function.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-93-03-04.pdf (3.213Mb)
Atlas, R. D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1983)[more][less]
Abstract: With a Steam Trap Management Program a plant can expect to achieve a 95% performance level. This is minimally a 30% improvement above the industry norm in North America. The average industrial plant has a 58% performance level. On average, for every hundred steam traps installed only 58 were working effectively -- 42% needed attention! These programs had associated cost benefits of at least 100% return on investment, a maximum six month breakeven on cash flow, and an energy cost reduction amounting to as much as 10%.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-83-04-107.pdf (3.932Mb)
Koehler, T. A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), June 1986)[more][less]
Abstract: Corporate energy conservation programs have made substantial gains in reducing energy consumption during the last decade. The responses to survive the mid-1970's global energy uncertainties were made in a crisis environment. Now, there is a transition from energy conservation to energy strategic planning. Energy engineers and managers need to improve their managerial skills for unleashing opportunities and implementing projects to increase energy efficiencies. To achieve these results requires a total energy management program. Successful energy management programs are an integral part of the day-to-day business management and long-range strategic planning. This paper discusses some of the steps to chart a course for successfully implementing energy strategic planning. There are a few critical success factors that are essential to managing a successful energy management program. The what, why, and how for each critical success factor is discussed.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-86-06-43.pdf (962.1Kb)
Blackwell, L. T.; Crowder, J. T. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1983)[more][less]
Abstract: The least expensive way to produce gas from coal is by low Btu gasification, a process by which coal is converted to carbon monoxide and hydrogen by reacting it with air and steam. Low Btu gas, which is used near its point of production, eliminates the high costs of oxygen and methanation required to produce gas that can be transmitted over long distance. Standard low Btu fixed bed gasifiers have historically been plagued by three constraints; namely, the production of messy tars and oils, the inability to utilize caking coals, and the inability to accept coal fines. Mansfield Carbon Products, Inc., a subsidiary of A.T. Massey Coal Company, has developed an atmospheric pressure, two-stage process that eliminates these three problems.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-83-04-123.pdf (3.013Mb)
Brueske, S.; Lorenz, T. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2012)[more][less]
Abstract: Significant opportunities exist for improving energy efficiency in U.S. manufacturing. A first step in realizing these opportunities is to identify how industry is using energy. Where does it come from? What form is it in? Where is it used? How much is lost? Answering these questions is the focus of this paper and the analysis described herein. Manufacturing energy and carbon footprints map energy consumption and losses, as well as greenhouse gas emissions, for the fifteen most energy intensive manufacturing sectors, and for the entire U.S. manufacturing sector. Analysts and decision-makers utilize the footprints to better understand the distribution of energy use in energy-intensive industries and the accompanying energy losses. The footprints provide a benchmark from which to calculate the benefits of improving energy efficiency and for prioritizing opportunity analysis. A breakdown of energy consumption by energy type and end use allows for comparison both within and across sectors.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-12-05-06.pdf (2.848Mb)
Manufacturing Energy Bandwidth Studies: Chemical, Peroleum Refining, Pulp and Paer, and Iron and Steel SectorsBrueske, S.; Cresko, J.; Capenter, A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2014)[more][less]
Abstract: Energy efficiency underlies American manufacturing competitiveness. Improvements in efficiency yield energy cost savings on site, and can have positive spin-off effects through the supply chain. An evaluation of the technical potential within an industrial subsector requires an understanding of the current average (baseline) energy utilization, the current improvement potential if state-of-the-art technologies are deployed, and future energy savings expected if next generation technologies potentials are realized. These bandwidths between baseline and improved energy efficiency potentials provide a consistent methodology to evaluate, aggregate and communicate energy savings potentials within industry. In this paper, we review bandwidth studies of four of the most energy intensive manufacturing sectors in the United States. The Chemical, Petroleum Refining, Iron and Steel, and Pulp and Paper Energy Bandwidth Studies serve as generalized guides for energy technology advancement opportunities. These studies identify energy intensity and consumption for key manufacturing processes and the sector as a whole. Potential energy savings opportunities are identified by quantifying four measures of energy consumption for each process area: current average (year 2010), state of the art, practical minimum, and thermodynamic minimum. These measures enable prediction of current savings opportunities and future savings opportunities, with supporting detail on opportunity areas. The resulting reports provide useful guides for determining which manufacturing sectors and processes are the most energy-intensive and offer the greatest energy savings opportunities from technology advances.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-14-05-43.pdf (2.078Mb)
Slautterback, W. H. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1985)[more][less]
Abstract: Manufacturing will change more in the next 15 years than it has in the last 75 years. The reasons are clear ... survival and technology. Unless U.S. companies can compete in a world economy on price, quality, design and delivery, our companies will not survive. The distinctions between the process industries and discrete manufacturers; between the manufacturing of electronics and machinery; between assembly and fabrication; between engineering and manufacturing will all tend to blend (or blur) as an economic lot size of one is approached.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-85-05-59.pdf (1.007Mb)