Browsing IETC - Industrial Energy Technology Conference by Title
Govindan, T. S. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Du Pont Energy Management Services has done energy studies at a number of refining and petrochemical plants. These studies are done through a rigorous, systematic, and objective analysis of all plant systems and equipment that convert, transport, use, or reject significant quantities of energy. The approach taken for these studies and several examples of specific energy savings items will be reviewed. The importance of an optimum steam system for overall energy efficiency will be discussed. The economical use of topping turbines in the steam system versus other mechanical energy options, savings possible from combustion versus other mechanical energy options, savings possible from combustion excess air control in boilers and fired heaters, and energy saving techniques on distillation columns will be reviewed. The discussion will also include an explanation of the key points in developing a successful energy conservation program.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-111.pdf (1.143Mb)
Houcek, J. K. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2005)[more][less]
Chittum, A.; Kaufman, N. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2011)[more][less]
Abstract: Combined heat and power (CHP), which can offer tremendous efficiency benefits to industrial facilities around the country, continues to be viewed as a long-term efficiency opportunity. However, the high up-front cost of CHP equipment and fuel-dependent operating costs have made CHP a difficult sell internally in some corporations. The recent recession and slow recovery have further discouraged facility managers and owners from making large capital investments such as CHP. This paper addresses the biggest barriers to new CHP project development from the perspective of those intimately involved in moving new CHP projects forward: CHP developers and CHP advocates. It identifies economic and financial barriers as the largest common barriers found throughout the U.S. It also suggests ways that CHP developers and advocates can address these barriers, and attempts to overcome them in the current economic context.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-11-05-20.pdf (715.3Kb)
Feng, Hua; Liu, Jinghing; Liu, Xiang; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Deng, Alan (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2012)[more][less]
Abstract: Steam turbines have been widely used in oil refineries for driving pumps, compressors and other rotary machines. However, in recent years, the authors of this paper have seen substantial turbine motorization projects completed or being planned in the refineries. This paper discusses the key aspects that should be considered in evaluating the feasibility of motorization projects. Based on the literature review and a refinery survey conducted by the authors, the key factors include the critical level of the related equipment, the potential energy savings and capital cost, the steam and power balance in the related area, and the reliability in the refinery's power supply. Based on the authors' experience, the utilities' energy efficiency incentive programs in California also influence the decision-making process for turbine motorization projects. Therefore, this paper includes a description of the utilities' guidelines for fuel substitution projects. In particular, the utilities' three-prong requirements on net source-BTU energy savings, cost effectiveness, and avoidance of adverse impacts to the environment are discussed. Two real life case studies are presented to demonstrate how the above criteria should be applied for determining if a motorization opportunity is economically viable. A discussion on suggested features is also included for prescreening turbine motorization project candidates for better energy and environment economics such as venting of exhaust steam from a back pressure turbine and oversized design of the existing turbine and pump.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-12-05-02.pdf (341.0Kb)
Nordyke, H. G., Jr. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: Georgia Power's Off-Peak Rider encourages load reductions up to 40% during on-peak periods over four summer months each year. Since summer on-peak time represents about 50% of available time, the customer's productive summer capacity may be reduced 20%, or about 7% annually. Billing demand is reduced year round in proportion to cut-backs taken during the summer on-peak period. Examples will be developed that quantity benefits to large, high load factor customers of Georgia Power Company who have elected to take service under provisions of the off-peak rider.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-84-04-43.pdf (1.913Mb)
Williams, S. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1994)[more][less]
Abstract: Traditionally, energy efficiency projects have been financed by energy service companies (ESCOs) under a shared savings arrangement known as performance contracting. Essentially, performance contracting packages engineering, procurement and construction management services with project finance to provide companies with an ability to implement energy efficiency projects on an off-balance sheet basis. For large industrials, who have ready access to engineering services, the real attractiveness of performance contracting is the off-balance sheet nature of the financing. However, as every energy manager has experienced, selling the next shared savings deal internally can be a difficult task at best. Financial types react coolly to transactions in which the effective interest rates can range from 15% 30%. The ideal product for industrials would be a pure financing arrangement, that is off-balance sheet, low cost and capable of being funded by banks and leasing companies. Specifically, a traditional asset-based lending product, called an off-balance sheet loan (OBL), can be adapted to the financing of energy efficiency projects. Structured properly, an OBL can provide industrials with the same off-balance sheet benefit as performance contracting, but at a greatly reduced cost. Typically, the interest rate on an OBL will approximate an industrial's incremental borrowing rate and is currently around 8.0% -10.0%.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-94-04-24.pdf (3.740Mb)
Davis, M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1989)[more][less]
Abstract: Our commitment to reliable electric power does not stop at the meter, but extends all the way to the equipment that it operates. Through the Power Quality Program, we provide professional power consultants to assure that the customer has quality power all the way to where they need it. The consultants, at no cost to the customer, will work with them to perform a power quality survey of their building to determine the kind and source of disturbances affecting their equipment. Various solutions to the problem will be evaluated and the most cost-effective ones will be recommended. If the solution requires such power conditioning equipment as transient surge suppressors, power line conditioners or uninterruptible power supplies, we can provide the equipment. A convenient lease finance plan is available to make the equipment affordable.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-89-09-62.pdf (1.888Mb)
Ula, S.; Bershinsky, V.; Cain, W. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1995)[more][less]
Abstract: The Wyoming Electric Motor Training and Testing Center (WEMTTC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy-Denver Support Office and the Naval Petroleum Reserve #3 (NPR-3), has conducted an extensive study of electric motor efficiency at the Reserve's oil field near Casper, Wyoming. As a result of this project, WEMTTC has developed a new test method for estimating an electric motor's operating efficiency, and the instrumentation to implement this test method. Using the new test method and instrumentation, several oversized or inefficient motors were replaced with new generation, high-efficiency motors, and the savings documented. This paper describes the test method and instrumentation developed by WEMTTC. The results obtained from the actual energy-efficient motor retrofits are also presented.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-95-04-30.pdf (4.253Mb)
Causilla, H.; Acosta, J. R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1982)[more][less]
Abstract: Realizing that the use of coal has the potential to offset the effects of world oil prices on the Dominican Republic's economy, the Commission Nacional de Politica Energetica (CNPE) requested Bechtel Power Corporation to study the technical and economic feasibility of converting the nation's largest oil-fired facilities to coal and to develop preliminary designs for the conversions. This paper addresses the methodology used in the study, with special emphasis on the determination of the technical and economic feasibility of converting power plants and cement plants from oil to coal. The summary results and conclusions are presented and include coal conversion capital costs, cost savings, and program overall schedule. The intent of the authors is to provide a reference for the study of converting other islands' oil burning facilities to coal.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-82-04-163.pdf (1.685Mb)
Estes, C. B.; Turner, W. C. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1980)[more][less]
Abstract: Each and every citizen has been affected by the energy crisis by now. Business and industry have especially been hurt as the rising cost of energy and its dwindling supplies are the twin jaws of a vise rapidly closing in on profits. Much work is being done in large companies; but most small to medium companies have yet to undertake a substantial energy management program. The reasons are many but often they simply I do not understand the savings possible or the techniques available. Recognizing this, the Oklahoma Department of Energy designed a program to acquaint Oklahoma industry with the potential savings available through energy management and some basic techniques. The program is, entitled "Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program" and is housed at Oklahoma State University. The program is funded by the U. S. Department of Energy through the State Energy Conservation Plan. This paper describes the program offerings, impact to date and plans for the future.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-80-04-132.pdf (1.248Mb)
Turner, W. C.; Estes, C. B. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1982)[more][less]
Abstract: In Oklahoma, industry consumes about 35% of the total energy consumed. While it is true that much work has been done in the larger companies, most small to medium sized companies have yet to undertake a substantial energy management program. Often they simply do not understand the savings possible or the techniques available. Recognizing this, a program was developed to acquaint Oklahoma industry with the potential savings allowable through energy management techniques. The program is entitled 'Oklahoma Industrial Energy; Management Program' and is located at Oklahoma State University. This paper describes past, on-going, and proposed activities of this Program and assesses their impact. Included are industrial energy management conferences, closed circuit television short courses on selected energy management topics, energy auditing, industrial energy audits (through the Oklahoma Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center) , energy and water management research, and two courses currently being offered.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-82-04-140.pdf (1.182Mb)
Turner, W. C.; Webb, R. E.; Phillips, J. M.; Viljoen, T. A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: The need for sound energy management is no longer worthy of debate. Action is necessary and much is being done by U.S. industry. Unfortunately, however, the majority of the work is being done by the few large energy intensive industries throughout the country. The average small to medium sized company has yet to undertake a dedicated program. The reasons are numerous, but often it is simply because of a lack of knowledge of techniques or the amount of savings possible. Recognizing this, the Oklahoma Department of Energy designed a program to acquaint Oklahoma industry with the potential savings available through energy management and some basic techniques. The program is entitled "Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program" and is housed at Oklahoma State University. The program is funded by the U. S. Department of Energy through the State Energy Conservation Plan. This paper describes the program offerings, impact to date and plans for the future. The program offerings basically include: 1. A series of tuition free Industrial Energy Management Conferences (over 20 given to date involving many Oklahoma industries). 2. A free energy newsletter entitled "Energy Channel" mailed to all participating Oklahoma industries. 3. A series of Energy Audit booklets including instructions and forms. 4. Technical aid on a limited basis. 5. A series of laboratory type experiments involving power factor, solar energy, boiler combustion improvement and other energy related projects. 6. Fact sheet publication as the need develops. Plans for the future include expansion of the program to small businesses in general through the Energy Extension Service and more technical aid to participating industries, The basic plan involving the services above shall remain intact. The program has been very successful to date. The results are directly transferable to other states and the program directors are willing to share information.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-75.pdf (1.460Mb)
Buehler, J. H. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper will discuss an Energy Audit conducted in 1976 on Union Carbide's Texas City No. 3 Olefins Ethylene Unit. Staffing, planning, and conduct of an Audit are reviewed. Project endorsement by the multifunctional Energy Audit Team is used to prioritize capital programs. The paper will describe several projects having possible application in other Olefin plants. Preparation and use of an Energy Curve reviewed. An Energy Index graph projects improvements to be achieved by implementation of a four-year $44 million capital program which resulted from the Audit. Reorganization of the Olefin unit technical staff to complete the energy conservation program is covered. Several techniques being used to insure operator and maintenance commitment to energy conservation are reviewed. The Texas City No. 3 Olefins Unit is an LPG based ethylene plant rated in excess of one billion pounds per year. Since start-up in 1968, energy costs have escalated by a factor of ten. The unit's current energy bill exceeds $45 million per year. Between 1972 and 1977 the Olefin plant conversion energy index increased by 40%. Concerned with rising fuel price and decreasing energy efficiency, management decided to conduct an Energy Audit on the Olefins Unit. This paper discusses the audit and implementation of the resulting conservation program. The paper is divided into four sections: I. The Energy Audit II. Energy Curve III. Energy Index and Energy Projects IV. Operating Department Organization
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-115.pdf (1.850Mb)
Muller, M. R.; Barnish, T.; Polomski, P. P. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1995)[more][less]
Abstract: A survey of 104 manufacturers has been carried out. Each plant had received an energy audit by an EADC at least 24 months prior to the study. The survey attempted to determine why certain recommendations made in the audit report were not implemented. Several interesting results were obtained. Of most importance is the observation that many of the companies eventually implemented recommendations which were initially rejected. Also, the acceptable simple payback for energy conserving measures varies inversely with yearly energy costs. Finally, a clear correlation between the level of training of plant personnel and the sophistication of solutions to energy problems is clearly demonstrated.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-95-04-25.pdf (4.402Mb)
Ahner, D. J.; Priestley, R. R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), June 1990)[more][less]
Abstract: Maintaining efficient and reliable plant operation is a prime objective in the generation of power. These are important considerations for utilities and particularly for Independent Power Producers as they become a more significant factor in the energy supply. On Line Performance Monitoring is an effective method to improve operating efficiency, detect and correct off nominal operation and expediently analyze cause and effect component performance relationships. The heart of a Performance Monitor is a modular collection of calculations used to determine performance indices in the power plant. Calculated performance indices are used in numerous applications: 1. To measure actual component performance compared to guaranteed or expected performance 2. To identify controllable operating problems and provide operator guidance in achieving the best operation of the plant 3. To evaluate component performance and deterioration for use in a maintenance program 4. To develop cost data and incremental cost characteristics for the economic operation or dispatch of the unit with other system energy sources 5. To document plant performance compared to base line data for the demonstration of efficient operation and improved availability. This paper will discuss the many advantages associated with a Performance Monitor system, their application, the benefits which may be realized and the potential of this concept with advanced diagnostic capability.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-90-06-24.pdf (4.810Mb)
Hall, M. S. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1994)[more][less]
Abstract: The measurement of the velocity of ultrasound provides a nondestructive means to characterize the elastic stiffness properties of paper. The objective of this project is to develop sensors capable of measuring the velocity of ultrasound in the thickness and in-plane directions of moving paper webs. On-machine measurements would allow continuous monitoring of product quality as well as provide data for controlling the papermaking process. Transducers mounted in fluid-filled wheels are used to make thickness direction, ZD, ultrasound velocity measurements on paper webs moving in the nip between two such wheels. Comparisons of the arrival times of echo and transmitted pulses with and without the paper web in the nip provide a measure of the transit time and caliper. Bimorph transducers mounted in an aluminum cylinder are used for in-plane machine direction (MD) and cross direction (CD) in-plane measurements.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-94-04-62.pdf (4.563Mb)
Charles, D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1996)[more][less]
Abstract: Interruptible power rates, Utility special rate negotiations, and the emergence of a spot electrical power market all can lead to lower industrial energy costs. The installation of low cost on-site diesel powered generation, or the proposed intention to install, provides the means for obtaining lower purchased power costs. The functionality of a standby power system and its inherent value in the coming free market purchase of electrical energy are added benefits. Project feasibility, conceptual design, on-site generation facility requirements, interconnection requirements, and operation and maintenance costs will be examined. Installation costs in the range of $350 to $400 per KW and operating costs of approximately $0.06 to $0.07 per kWhr compared to purchased power rates determine the feasibility of an on-site generation system. In some cases avoided demand charges offer an opportunity for savings such that special rates are not needed for a feasible project. Depending on the manufacturer, low capital cost diesel generators are available in 1000 to 2000 KW blocks. Capacity requirements determine the number of engines required. Large capacity installations are somewhat restricted by voltage and current ratings. Some variants for multiple engine generator installations will yield greater reliability or lower costs depending on objectives. Specific requirements for basic building blocks of an on-site generation system will be examined as well as an example of a 5,500 KW installation. IEA provides an alternative to installing and operating an on-site generation system. IEA owns and operates diesel standby generation systems for customers, with responsibility for all maintenance and operation as well as associated costs. This allows customers to focus on core business, not the generation of electrical energy.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-96-04-16.pdf (5.904Mb)
Cilia, J. P. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), June 1986)[more][less]
Abstract: The trend toward lower cost of new technologies in building automation and energy management in the 80's has forced the controls companies to produce individual microbased Distributed Direct Digital Controls (DDDC) systems. The impact of new technologies unfortunately raises a tremendous number of problems for large facilities, such as incompatibility between different manufacturers' data communication protocols, configuration networks, message formats, sensors, and source program languages. This paper describes the IBM Poughkeepsie Distributed Facilities Automation Control System (IPDFACS) standards used in the bidding process, the philosophy behind them, the type of instrumentation specified to be installed, and how to maintain this complex DDDC system.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-86-06-12.pdf (1.081Mb)
Alexander, J. (Energy Systems Laboratory, September 1988)[more][less]
Abstract: "This paper discusses how steady state models are being used in the process industry to perform online energy optimization of steam and electrical systems. It presents process demands commonly found in the processing industry in terms of steam and electricity. It further discusses the methods of providing this energy for refineries, petrochemical plants, and other processing plants - chemical, paper, and metal. A typical system flow diagram is used to highlight the energy system network and describe areas where steady-state models are used. The types of models used are discussed, and a scheme for putting the models together to provide total process plant energy optimization is summarized. The types of optimization which can be implemented in a process plant is thus presented. The paper points out what steady-state modeling is needed to do online optimization of an energy network in a processing plant. Finally, a discussion of the economics on online energy optimization is presented."
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-88-09-08.pdf (554.4Kb)
Woods, R. R.; Cuttica, J. J.; Trimble, K. A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), June 1986)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper describes the experiences and results of the major field test of forty-six 40kW onsite fuel cell power plants in the U.S. and Japan through 1985. The field test is a cooperative effort between the Gas Research Institute, gas and electric utility companies, private sector companies, and the U.S. Department of Energy and Department of Defense. The field test is conducted in parallel with technology development efforts sponsored by the Gas Research Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy. Operation of the field test units began in December 1983 with the initial start-up of two units at a racquetball club sponsored by the Southern California Gas Corporation. As of May 1985, over 300,000 hours of operating experience was achieved on the fleet of 40kW units. This experience has demonstrated the onsite fuel cell's superior technical specification, ease of installation, operation and maintenance, and economic benefits over conventional energy service. In addition, this effort identified operating deficiencies in the 40kW units which were either corrected through field retrofits or provided guidance to the parallel technology development efforts.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-86-06-101.pdf (929.0Kb)