Browsing IETC - Industrial Energy Technology Conference by Title
Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Compressed Air Management Program: A Performance Assessment Approach to Improving Industrial Compressed Air System Operation and MaintenanceQualmann, R. L.; Zeller, W.; Baker, M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 2002)[more][less]
Abstract: The Compressed Air Management Program (CAMP) provides Pacific Gas and Electric's (PG&E's) large industrial customers with measurement-based performance assessments of their compressed air systems. Under this program, the customer's system is inspected and both short-term, high resolution, and longer-term measurements are taken of power and pressure. These data are used in developing a system simulation based on the US DOE's AIRMaster+ computer model. Model results and professional judgment are used to identify a cost-effective strategy for improving the system. Recommendations are provided to the customer along with technical support for implementing these recommendations. After improvements are complete, the performance measurements are repeated so that PG&E and its customers can judge the effectiveness of the recommendations. The program uses a standardized toolkit (all off-the-shelf components) along with software developed exclusively for this application, to accomplish the required measurements and efficiently analyze and reduce the data for use in the AIRMaster+ model.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-02-04-33.pdf (6.033Mb)
Beals, C. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2004)[more][less]
Abstract: We commonly find plants using padding to transport liquids or light solids short distances from tankers into storage tanks. Padding can wreck havoc in compressed air systems with limited storage, undersized cleanup equipment (dryers and filters), and/or l
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-04-04-19.pdf (762.0Kb)
Akhtar, S. Z. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 2001)[more][less]
Abstract: Conventional heat sink technologies of use the condenser/cooling tower arrangement or an air cooled condenser for condensing exhaust steam from steam turbines. Each of these two systems have certain advantages as well as disadvantages. This paper discusses an alternate heat sink technology known as the Parallel Condensing System which is a combination of the cooling tower and the air cooled technologies. The Parallel Condensing System offers the advantages associated the conventional technologies but minimizes the disadvantages. As a result the Parallel Condensing System can offer greater value to the plant operator under certain circumstances.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-01-05-17.pdf (3.639Mb)
Canfield, F.; Jenkins, O. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), June 1986)[more][less]
Abstract: The Parastillation process is a new method for multi-stage, counter-current contact between vapor and liquid that results in 33% more ideal stages than distillation for a given tray spacing. Patents have been granted in the U.S.A., U.K., Europe and other countries. Performance of the process has been confirmed over the past several years by computer simulation, by laboratory tests and in commercial installations.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-86-06-63.pdf (919.1Kb)
King, D. R.; Chastain, C. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: The disposal of low value by-products from the processing of agricultural food crops presents many energy consuming problems to the food producing industry. Consequently, industry has the continuous problem of utilization or disposal of the by-products within the frame work of its economic structure. The system presented here is an approach to an economical way of utilizing waste by-products for an energy source there-by reducing dependency on traditional fuel sources.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-84-04-132.pdf (2.679Mb)
Pierce, C. S. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), June 1990)[more][less]
Abstract: Central Power and Light Company, an Investor Owned Utility serving the greater part of South Texas, got the largest setback of its 75 year life during the 1980's when cogeneration hit home. It's no secret that the Texas Gulf Coast in 1980 was one of the greenest pastures in the country for the integration of cogeneration. Scattered throughout our coastal service area was a concentration of petrochemical plants and refineries placed like a row of dominoes waiting to be knocked over. These plants while operating in Texas were really doing business in a world market. If one company took advantage of a technology that could reduce its operation costs significantly, then very definite pressure was placed on all its competitors to follow suit in quick order or lose a share in the market. To make the story short, CPL lost over 250 MWs and eight of its largest customers in about a six year period to the implementation of cogeneration technology. By CPL I mean the stockholders who expected a dividend, the employees who faced possible layoffs and the remaining customers who faced the possibility of increased rates necessary to pick up embedded costs of the system. All these groups had a stake in turning the situation around. I have to add that even the customers who began to serve their own load had a stake in tile health of the utility with which they remained interconnected with and purchased standby and maintenance service from.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-90-06-32.pdf (2.383Mb)
Johnston, W. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1985)[more][less]
Abstract: Carolina power and light provides electric service to about 3 million people in the rapidly growing sun belt area of some 30,000 square miles in eastern North and South Carolina; almost half of North Carolina and one-fourth of South Carolina. Most customers live in uncongested small towns and active urban centers largely in the coastal plains, although the company also serves portions of the piedmont and mountain sections of the two states. CP&L's service area is attractive for its diversity of climate, geography, and, excellent economic perspective. The geographic area is outlined below.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-85-05-37.pdf (1.130Mb)
Johnston, W. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1994)[more][less]
Abstract: I have taken the liberty to apply my own logic to the topic of "Partnerships" or "Joint Ventures", particularly as applied to the opportunities, difficulties, and conditions which presently exist within the industrial and commercial sectors. I would like to integrate into these concepts a little of my thinking as to how they may be implemented, and point out some of the difficulties that will be encountered in the implementation.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-94-04-22.pdf (3.819Mb)
Newell, R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1996)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper describes how Honeywell Industrial Automation and Control (IAC) has developed and continues to utilize alliances and joint ventures in the United states and internationally. Alliances and joint ventures are defined, and successful examples of partnerships are offered. Honeywell promotes the idea that partnering is a commitment between two or more organizations and are established for the primary reason of obtaining business objectives. Benefits from these relationships include: improved efficiency and cost effectiveness; an increased opportunity for innovation; and continual improvement of quality products and services. Customer and Honeywell values are described, along with valuable lessons that have been learned throughout our partnering experiences. Alliance and joint ventures require a great deal of work. But, as Honeywell has experienced, these relationships are worth the effort and can lead to successful, long-term partnerships.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-96-04-11.pdf (3.351Mb)
Blevins, L. D.; Estes, C. B. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1980)[more][less]
Abstract: Payback analysis of investment proposals is one of the most widely used and often misapplied concepts in industry. Significant shortcomings are inherent to this method, its failure to consider the time value of money and inflationary factors being two. The problem of including the time value of money (to the firm) has been conquered by introducing the concept of discounted payback analysis. Recognizing the need of incorporating inflationary factors into economic analysis and the fact that the energy inflation rate often exceeds the inflation rate of the general economy, this paper develops a technique for including these parameters into payback analysis of energy investments. Included in the development of this method are examples of its correct and incorrect application with regard to energy (savings) related projects. Results are presented, indicating the analyst must be careful in the application of these parameters in calculating a proposal's payback, and in comparing energy related projects to non-energy related projects.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-80-04-31.pdf (975.3Kb)
Davidson, B. G., Jr.; Kanewske, F. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1981)[more][less]
Abstract: The common denominator in every plant manager's conservation effort is people. With this in mind, Texaco's Port Arthur refinery established a program to expand plant employees awareness of the need for conservation, and to increase their ability to save energy on the job. Emphasis is on development of positive attitudes, effective training, sound operating practices and attention to proper maintenance and inspection.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-81-04-94.pdf (1.151Mb)
Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT): An Innovative Mechanism for Enhancing Energy Efficiency in India's Industrial SectorGarnik, S. P.; Martin, M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2014)[more][less]
Abstract: On 31st March 2012, India quietly announced a historic regulation for industrial sector in a bid to ensure energy security of the country. The regulation, with an aim to enhance energy efficiency in energy intensive industrial sectors, is empowered by Energy Conservation Act, 2001 of India and National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE) under National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC). The Energy Conservation Act, 2001 which is the first legislative initiative by Govt. of India to give fresh impetus in energy efficiency movement of the country, has the provision of declaring 'Designated Consumers (DC)' in 'Energy Intensive Industries'. The above regulation, under a scheme called Perform, Achieve & Trade (PAT), notified specific energy consumption (SEC) reduction targets for 478 DCs in eight industrial sectors like Cement, Pulp & Paper, Aluminium, Textile, Chlor-Alkali, Iron &Steel, Fertilizer and Thermal Power Plant. Different targets have been assigned to different DCs and to be achieved in a three years time period from the date of notification. The over-performers will be entitled to get energy saving certificates (e-certs) at the end of the compliance period. Similarly, the under-achievers will have to comply the shortfall by purchasing the e-certs in a tradable system or paying the penalty. This market based mechanism is first of its kind in the world.
Files in this item: 2ESL-IE-14-05-23.pdf (842.5Kb)(more files)
Performance Characteristics of an Electrochemically Powered Turboprop: A Comparison with State of the Art Gas TurbinesJohnson, M. C.; Swan, D. H. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), March 1993)[more][less]
Abstract: As we search for alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles it is important to consider the role of electrochemical fuel cells in aircraft propulsion systems. This paper focuses on this issue with regards to small turboprop aircraft. An electrochemical propulsion system would employ liquid hydrogen in an air breathing fuel cell that would generate electricity to run electric motors which in tum power the props. The major question this paper addresses is: under what conditions will a hydrogen/fuel cell power system be superior to a state of the art hydrogen/gas turbine power system? The systems are compared on a fuel consumption basis, a cost basis, and a reliability/ maintainability basis. The analysis show that both specific power and efficiency play an important role in determining which configuration uses less fuel. In general, the fuel cell system is heavier but more efficient than the gas turbine. It appears that the fuel cell system will begin to compete with the gas turbine as the power densities surpass 1 kw/kg and the efficiencies approaches .45. From a cost perspective gas turbines presently cost $500/ Kw and fuel cells are far more expensive. However, the raw materials in a fuel cell are inexpensive and could conceivably be cheaper, thus making the fuel cells increasingly attractive. From a reliability perspective, the fuel cell system appears to have a significant advantage due to the lack of moving parts and the high reliability of electric motors.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-93-03-07.pdf (4.335Mb)
Wagner, J.R. (Energy Systems Laboratory, June 1986)[more][less]
Performance Optimization of a Fan System- Overcoming Impacts of Modified Design Criteria Due to Regulatory Requirements and Changed Operating ConditionsWroblewski, R. G.; Preis, F.; Smith, R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1997)[more][less]
Abstract: The Louisiana Pacific mill in Tomahawk Wisconsin manufactures oriented-strand board. Several large induced-draft fans and combustion-air blowers were operating inefficiently at this mill. This case study highlights a systems approach that was applied to address fan inefficiency. Energy savings from optimizing the system are estimated to be 338 kW, nearly half of the original measured input power of 678 kW. The project is currently being implemented and will have a payback period of less than 8 months. The opportunities here are typical of opportunities thought to exist in most industrial plants. In this case, process needs changed due to environmental regulations and change of location, but the system did not, leading to low overall system efficiency.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-97-04-16.pdf (2.654Mb)
Dymond, R. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), April 1992)[more][less]
Abstract: Petroleum coke is a by-product of the coking process which upgrades (converts) low-valued residual oils into higher-valued transportation, heating and industrial fuels. Pace forecasts that by the year 2000 petroleum coke production will increase from 36 million to 47 million short tons/year. Because the crude pool will continue to become more sour and refiners treat the coker as the "garbage can" the quality of the petroleum cokes will generally degrade- contain higher sulfur and trace metal levels. The U.S. produces nearly 70% of the total and is expected to maintain this share. Domestic markets consumed less than half of the U.S. production; 80% of the high sulfur fuel grade production from the Gulf coast is exported to Japan or Europe. Increasing environmental concerns could disrupt historic markets and threaten coker operations. This would create opportunities for alternate end-uses such as cogeneration projects. The Pace Consultants Inc. continuously monitors and reports on the petroleum coke industry-production and markets-in its multi-client publication The Pace Petroleum Coke Ouarterly. The information presented in this paper is based on this involvement and Pace's experience in single and multi client consulting activities related to the petroleum refining and petroleum coke industries. The purpose is to provide a review of the existing world petroleum coke industry with particular emphasis on the U.S. production and markets. Forecasted production levels and critical factors which could alter the historic market disposition of petroleum coke are addressed.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-92-04-35.pdf (4.764Mb)
Viar, W. L. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: Hydrocarbon reforming involves a variety of chemical reactions at high temperatures and pressures in the presence of suitable catalysts. The conversion of naptha to high octane aromatics requires high energy to initiate and sustain the reaction at temperatures of 850-950oF. Hydrogen - rich off - gases are fired in combinations of process furnaces. Heat is transferred to hydrocarbon fluids by radiation, principally. Feed or return stream temperatures determine the need for convection sections. It is essential that the operation and maintenance of these furnaces be optimized to minimize production costs. This paper describes the performance testing and evaluation of a set of ten refinery furnaces used to thermally drive several reforming reactors and to regenerate catalysts. Firing rates provide an input of 216.2 x 106 Btu/hr. to the furnaces, at $1.90 per 106 Btu. The units are fitted with multiple natural draft burners. There is insufficient turbulence and swirl in the burners. Operators manually set up the burners with excessive airflows for normal, full-load firing. These furnaces represent production limits. Products of combustion exhaust at high thermal levels - the range is from 985-1700oF. The mixed gases flow through a "waste heat" boiler, or they bypass the boiler and enter a single stack. Steam generation at 150 psig averages 38,200 lb/hr. Heat is wasted via the bypass at a rate of 41.1x106 Btu /hr. at 1240oF. When airflows are reduced (to 15% excess air) the loss will be 18.7x106 Btu/hr. at 1180oF. Installation of a second, parallel waste heat boiler will result in a saving of l3.4x106 Btu/hr. Energy savings at this furnace complex will be equivalent to $628,700 per year. Investment costs were estimated to be less than $250,000 for the proposed heat trap addition.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-33.pdf (1.948Mb)
White, J. R.; Marshall, J. F.; Shoemaker, G. L.; Smith, R. B. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1983)[more][less]
Abstract: In recent years crude oils available to refiners have required more energy to refine and refiners have adjusted their processes to obtain better energy efficiency. In addition, the shift to lead-free gasoline has led to refining adjustments that reduce the energy effects of changing octane levels. These changes have been incorporated in the linear program representation of a modern 'fuels' refinery. The total flow of crude oil to products and the corresponding energy use are included in this representation. The shifts in processes and stream flows and corresponding energy changes as related to gasoline octane levels are illustrated by detailed flow charts. A method for allocating process energy consumed to individual products is offered. The allocation to gasoline is shown to be somewhat higher than to other products. The energy to change gasoline octane levels is a very small fraction of refinery energy consumption.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-83-04-117.pdf (2.979Mb)
Shipley, A. M.; Elliott, R. N. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 2003)[more][less]
Abstract: Fuel cells have been touted as one of the most reliable and environmentally sound methods of producing high-quality electricity for use in the industrial sector. Fuel cell developers are racing to produce larger quantities of fuel cells at lower prices. While the power densities of fuel-cell stacks have been increasing, fuel cell technologies have unfortunately remained uneconomical for the majority of industrial customers. The growth of the fuel cell market has not increased at the rate at which developers and marketers would like us to believe. With stricter federal air regulations coming into effect in 2007 and more urban/industrial areas falling into non-attainment for pollutants such as NOx operators of distributed generation systems may begin to consider fuel cells a more viable option. In this paper we will explore the potential of various fuel cell technologies for providing on-site generation at industrial facilities. Our analysis will include brief technical descriptions of the various fuel cell technologies as well as a description of applicable end-use applications for the various technologies. We will determine which technologies hold the most potential for providing reliable power and heat for processes as well as estimates of technically and economically feasible industrial fuel cell capacity between now and 2020. The manufacturing service infrastructure, technical and market barriers to increased demand, and regulatory, permitting, and siting issues will be explored. We will outline the various factors that play in the technical and economic diffusion and offer sample diffusion curves for the various fuel cell technologies.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-03-05-15.pdf (6.622Mb)