Browsing IETC - Industrial Energy Technology Conference by Title
Pollock, C. B. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1981)[more][less]
Abstract: Energy management in modern refineries is becoming more difficult as the real cost of in-house and purchased fuel escalates and the quality of feed stocks decreases. Furnace tube maintenance has been made more complex by the presence of not only coke but extensive inorganic deposits while the demands of efficient fuel utilization require superior results from decoking procedures. Union Carbide Industrial Services Co., (UCISCO), is continuing the development of its proprietary 'SANDJET' system that removes coke as well as other inorganic deposits efficiently and rapidly. The procedure features computerized job planning and control in order to assure accurate estimates of cost and the proper selection of cleaning parameters and materials. Energy saving benefits of the process have recently become obvious and case studies summarizing these results are discussed. A description of the newly developed job controls and a brief summary of recent experiences in the field will be described in this paper.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-81-04-02.pdf (1.277Mb)
Al-Dossary, F. S. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2012)[more][less]
Abstract: Saudi Aramco Gas Operations (GO) created energy efficiency strategies for its 5-year business plan (2011-2015), supported by a unique energy efficiency program, to reduce GO energy intensity by 26% by 2015. The program generated an energy savings of $ 8.8 MM, equivalent to 5% energy intensity reduction in 2011 as compared to 2010 level. The program works through a structured process, pre-set energy targets, installations of online energy management tools, and implementation of key high impact energy efficiency initiatives and completion of energy conservation projects. The long-term fruit of the program was recognized as a best practice to be adapted by most of Saudi Aramco facilities. The generation of innovative energy saving ideas under implementation resulted in potential energy savings of $23 MM. This paper confirms what many others in the industry have found, the opportunity is significant. The author illustrates GO organization crafted a structured energy efficiency program and innovative approaches to unlock the full potential of higher standards of energy efficiency performance. Gas Operation energy efficiency program will ideally translates energy intensity strategies into realities and transforms the missed opportunities into practical tactics for capturing the millions of dollars of savings potential that exist across GO facilities.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-12-05-16.pdf (2.998Mb)
Ratkowski, D. P. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2007)[more][less]
Abstract: Empirical analysis of stack gas heating value allowed the Afton Chemical Corporation Sauget Plant to reduce natural gas flow to its process flares by about 50% while maintaining the EPA-required minimum heating value of the gas streams.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-07-05-01.pdf (51.93Kb)
Monroe, R. C. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1981)[more][less]
Abstract: There are several ways to save energy in wet cooling towers and air cooled heat exchangers using axial fans. This paper will discuss ways to improve fan system efficiency in wet and dry towers both during the design phase and after installation by specifying energy efficient equipment. Variable pitch fan versus fixed pitch fan operation is discussed in terms of energy savings and means of control. The areas of interest to wet cooling tower users would be the influence on fan diameter and operating point on horsepower, how and when are velocity recovery stacks effective, the effect of varying fan speed to improve efficiency, and tip clearance effects. The areas of interest to dry tower (air cooled heat exchanger) users would be the effect of inlet losses, approach velocity losses, and losses due to air recirculation.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-81-04-73.pdf (1.180Mb)
Chung, C. W. (Energy System Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1985)[more][less]
Abstract: Two level demand makes it possible to use two systems for refrigeration and save energy and money. An example of this type of refrigeration, consisting of an ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) unit and a mechanical compression refrigeration (MCR) unit, is presented in this article. This paper will briefly describe process configuration, advantages and utility consumption, equipment cost and direct field cost comparisons of such a hybrid refrigeration unit over its counterpart, a cascading MCR unit, in a Rectisol application.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-85-05-11.pdf (656.9Kb)
Puskar, J. R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1998)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper speaks to a common problem in a lot of industrial and institutional boilerhouses. Most boilerhouses do an excellent job at collecting information. Circular chart recorders churn out pressures, temperatures, and flows for everything from steam to natural gas to city water consumption. If your facility is like most, this stuff all gets chucked into a drawer or file cabinet daily. Have you ever wondered why you collect and record what you do? What were people thinking when the existing logs were set up? This paper attempts to challenge the original thought process and hopes to evoke in you and your staff a renewed vision of what should be collected, how, and then what can be done with it. It seems that most "good old days" data collection efforts were centered around identifying equipment operability and reliability problems. If a line suddenly jumped off the chart, hopefully someone would notice and react in just the right way to keep the plant operating. However, 99% of the time when things change slightly over days or when things seem normal, no one gets excited about anything. This is because action points or things to care about (TCA's) for energy savings are few and far between. This paper hopes to help you define lots of energy cost-related TCA's. This is all about data mining. It's all about finding gold buried in what you thought was waste. This paper can't give you specifics. It can however point you to appropriate TCA concepts. TCA's must be individually tailored to a particular boilerhouse's equipment, people, needs, utility costs, maintenance patterns, and a number of other critical factors. The goal of this paper is not to define new and expensive data acquisition or control system projects, It is instead to show you how to develop systems that only require paper, pencils, and people who are motivated and care. These people are probably already being paid by you to do most of this work. Our experience is that if these people are treated with respect and given some simple tools they will do amazing things beyond what you thought was possible. This is a low tech humanistic approach that has a fabulous rate of return. It's also something that can be immediately implemented.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-98-04-27.pdf (2.870Mb)
Saving Energy and Reducing Emissions from the Regeneration Air System of a Butane Dehydrogenation PlantJohn, T. P. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1998)[more][less]
Abstract: Texas Petrochemicals operates a butane dehydrogenation unit producing MTBE for reformulated gasoline that was originally constructed when energy was cheap and prior to environmental regulation. The process exhausts 900,000 pounds per hour of air at 900 to 1100°F containing CO and VOC. By installing a furnace/heat recovery steam generator, Texas Petrochemicals achieved significant reductions of VOC, CO, and NOx, along with energy savings.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-98-04-01.pdf (2.342Mb)
McReynolds, C. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), June 1986)[more][less]
Abstract: Today's emphasis is on saving dollars -- not just Btu's. Ford spent $900 million on energy in 150 plants worldwide last year. In 1972, Ford's energy bill was $238 million. Last year's bill would have been 35% higher than $900 million, if it had not been for conservation since 1972. First steps were cutting out obvious waste; e.g., repairing steam and compressed-air leaks, shutting down equipment promptly at end-of-shift, and lowering building temperatures -- simple measures that cost little but saved 25% of energy. Other steps included boiler tune-ups, improved combustion controls, weekend and summer boiler shutdown, steam trap surveys, automatic motor shutoff timers, fast-acting fabric traffic doors, and area metering. Steps requiring greater investment included energy management systems, waste incinerators with heat recovery, cogeneration and variable-frequency drives. Much pioneering work was done on self-help gas, negotiating reduced utility rates and rate case interventions. Employee awareness and involvement are essential. Regular energy council meetings and an attractive energy newsletter also help.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-86-06-41.pdf (1.103Mb)
Trojanowski, D.; Parfomak, P. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), March 1993)[more][less]
Abstract: Compressed air systems are among the most common and least efficient electrical end uses in industrial plants. Over 50% of plants use compressed air systems. According to various estimates, between 20% and 35% of the energy used in these systems could be saved through improved system design and maintenance. After lighting, motors and HVAC, compressed air systems offer the greatest energy savings potential in industrial facilities. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in capturing this potential through utility-sponsored DSM programs. Baltimore Gas & Electric Company (BG&E) has been investigating compressed air program design since 1991, and has offered rebate programs since January 1992. This paper will review BG&E's experiences with its compressed air programs to date and will discuss future directions in compressed air program design. Topics to be discussed include: technology options, industry standards, availability of technical expertise, measurement of performance, and incentive mechanisms.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-93-03-40.pdf (4.108Mb)
Wilson, T.; Bell, D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2010)[more][less]
Abstract: In September 2008, PCS UtiliData commissioned an Industrial Voltage Optimization system at the Plum Creek Timber Medium Density Fiberboard facility in Columbia Falls, Montana. The system was based upon the AdaptiVolt(TM) Volt/VAR Optimization system that had been installed at several electric utility distribution substations in the U.S. and Canada. These systems, being operated in Conservation Voltage Regulation mode, have provided significant energy conservation where they have been installed. Algorithms were developed to allow the system to operate with large synchronous motors without approaching pull-out torque points. After more than a year of operation the system has reduced demand at the facility by 3.72% with an annual energy savings of over 9,000,000 kWh per year at full production capacity. Based on verified energy savings Bonneville Power Administration paid Plum Creek over $337,000 for the project. This paper describes the voltage optimization system, the mechanism of energy conservation when voltage is optimized in an industrial facility and the measurement and verification method used to determine actual savings.
Files in this item: 2ESL-IE-10-05-20.pdf (1.963Mb)(more files)
Tomlin, W. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1980)[more][less]
Abstract: It is a particular pleasure for me to be here with you today to take part in the Texas Industrial Commission's Second Annual Industrial Energy Conference. "Energy" being an essential, if not the most essential part of the economic and social development of all nations, requires the concentrated attention of all of us in its management. What's important to those of us here today is important to everyone, everywhere in the world. We are pleased to have been asked to discuss with you employee motivation and participation in energy conservation, a topic sometimes neglected and all too infrequently discussed in relation to energy conservation. In our opinion however, it is a topic that is crucial to achieving and sustaining an ongoing in-plant conservation program.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-80-04-128.pdf (1.112Mb)
Francis, G. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1982)[more][less]
Abstract: It is a particular pleasure for me to be here with you today to take part in the Texas Industrial Commission's 1982 Industrial Energy Conference. 'Energy', being an essential, if not the most essential part of the economic and social development of all nations, requires the concentrated attention of all of us in its management. What is important to these of us here today is important to everyone, everywhere in the world. We are pleased to have been asked to discuss with you employee motivation and participation in energy conservation, a topic sometimes neglected and all too infrequently discussed in relation to energy conservation. It is however, in our opinion, a topic that is crucial to achieving and sustaining an ongoing in-plant conservation program.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-82-04-70.pdf (1.061Mb)
Woodruff, D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2010)[more][less]
Smolen, P.; Fox, M. (Energy Systems Laboratory, May 2003)[more][less]
Abstract: This paper will discuss the opportunities available to businesses, industries, and public entities in the restructured electric market in Texas. We will provide a case study of the demand side and supply side options that have been used by the City of Farmers Branch to optimize their savings and comply with Senate Bill 5. The paper will also discuss the experiences, future opportunities and obstacles that can be used by customer groups to increase their savings through load profile shaping and load management. These and other methods of involving public and private entities in the restructured Texas market will be covered.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-03-05-32.pdf (915.2Kb)
DeBat, R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 2001)[more][less]
Abstract: Armstrong Service Inc. (ASI) conducted an engineered evaluation at an Ammonium Nitrate Manufacturing facility during the Fall of 1999. This plant manufactures Nitric Acid and high and low density Ammonia Nitrate. The purpose of this evaluation is to identify energy losses and system improvements in the steam and condensate systems. Steam system improvements focus on lowering the cost of steam, wherever possible, with paybacks of 3 years or less. Overall, this ASI evaluation identifies six (6) steam savings proposals with an average simple payback of 2.9 years. This evaluation also identifies one system deficiency that will lead to unnecessary expenditures if allowed to continue, but would help to increase production if the suggested improvement was implemented. The following report details the individual findings and outlines the corrections needed. The savings generated from these improvements will more than pay for themselves in short order.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-01-05-37.pdf (5.932Mb)
Mehrdad, M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2005)[more][less]
Abstract: Incidents of problems and damage to customerowned electrical equipment and machinery resulting from abnormal voltage conditions, current imbalance, surges/transients, harmonics, losses, power factor, power interruptions, and phase loss and associated expenses; resulting in increased electric bills, excessive failure and maintenance of equipment and machinery have long been a concern to customers as well as electrical utilities. This paper briefly quantifies the effect of all of the above undesirable conditions from an operation/maintenance and economic point of view. An alternative method to remedy such aberrances is offered through use of an integrated system called ElectroFlow, for industrial, commercial, and institutional facilities. Additional detailed information beyond the scope of this paper is available upon request.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-05-05-25.pdf (556.8Kb)
Berven, O. J.; Ulowetz, M. A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), June 1986)[more][less]
Abstract: Structured packing is being utilized more and more in the process industry for increased efficiency, greater capacity, and energy savings in distillation columns. Pilot plant testing of the actual chemical system using commercially available structured packing is invaluable, but years of experience in pilot plant testing have shown that scaleup to successful commercial designs is a complicated process. In this paper an actual case history is cited as an example of the problems and benefits of conducting pilot plant tests which set the commercial design bases for a distillation train. The actual pilot plant testing involved a different structured packing type and blocked out operations to simulate a large number of theoretical stages. The pilot plant results verified the thermodynamic data to a high confidence level. As a result, the initial commercial installation of structured packing was started immediately. The actual installation and the startup are covered with a discussion of the energy savings and quality improvement which were obtained by replacing trays with the packing. Another case of retrofit testing in the new Koch Development Pilot Plant is discussed indicating other areas for attention to detail.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-86-06-29.pdf (1.291Mb)
Casada, D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 1999)[more][less]
Abstract: In most industrial settings, energy consumed by pumping systems is responsible for a major part of the overall electricity bill. In some cases, the energy is used quite efficiently; in others, it is not. Facility operators may be very familiar with pumping system equipment controllability, reliability, and availability, but only marginally aware of system efficiency. But there are some good reasons to increase that awareness: 1) As budgets shrink and the intensity of both domestic and international competition increases, the pressure to find additional ways of reducing costs will grow. 2) The reliability of pumps correlates with pump efficiency; that is, pumps operated near the design, or best efficiency point, will tend to perform more reliably and with greater availability. 3) The questions of whether global warming is truly occurring, and if it is, whether humankind's activities play a significant role may both be debatable. But there is no debating the fact that there are finite energy resources, particularly of the fossil fuel variety, on the earth. If we are to be counted as good stewards, then careful, if not frugal resource use is important. The cost of energy consumed by pumps usually dominates the pump life cycle cost. But many end users, already stretched to support day-to-day facility operations, lack the time and resources to perform a methodical engineering study of, in some cases, hundreds of pumps within their facilities to understand the energy costs and the potential opportunity for reduction. Under the auspices of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Motor Challenge Program, prescreening guidance documents and a computer program called PSAT (Pumping System Assessment Tool) have been developed to help end users, consultants, and equipment distributors recognize, both qualitatively and quantitatively, pumping system efficiency improvement opportunities. This paper describes the general methodologies employed and shows case study examples of the prescreening and software application.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-99-05-38.pdf (6.963Mb)
Kawamura, K.; Apaloo, Thomas-L. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), June 1986)[more][less]
Abstract: In processes of evaporation, distillation or drying, steam is used at different pressure and temperature levels. Such processes are found in the chemical, pulp/paper, fiber and several similar industries. These industries use large volumes of boiler generated steam, of which, very little is recovered after use because the pressure has been reduced to near atmospheric conditions. As a result, this "unusable" steam is vented to the environment while fresh steam is generated. A reversal of this cycle could be a potential source of cost savings in an era when the cost for generating energy is on the rise and represents a major portion of the cost of the raw materials. The technology is available today to prevent such loss of resources by recompressing the low pressure steam to a usable pressure for reinjection into the process stream. Mycom has developed, designed and installed two large MVR systems using screw compressors: one for a brewery and the other for a whiskey plant. This paper discusses the system aspects that presented challenges to Mycom. The economic benefits being realized will be discussed.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-86-06-116.pdf (1.716Mb)