Browsing IETC - Industrial Energy Technology Conference by Title
Waldsmith, R. W.; Hendrickson, M. J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1983)[more][less]
Abstract: Walk, Haydel has developed a two phase approach to optimize the recovery of process heat in energy intensive operations. While the approach can be used on 'grassroots' designs, it has been used primarily for revamps. The capital investment for adding heat exchange to processes economically justified when energy cost were low, is paid back in less than 3 years before taxes. Computer models of process operation are first used to improve process efficiencies and to increase the level of available process heat. Using in-house computer software based on the Nishida, Liu and Lapidus approach (AICHE Journal, 1977, Vol. 23, No.1); Walk, Haydel develops the theoretical optimum heat exchanger train arrangement for the process. Existing exchangers are reused and integrated into a practical design based on the theoretical arrangement. This paper will discuss briefly the Walk, Haydel procedure and will provide an example problem to demonstrate its use. Then, case histories will be reviewed to indicate the potential for heat recovery in a variety of processing units.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-83-04-79.pdf (4.998Mb)
The Wanlass Polyphase Rotating Magnetic Device in Electric Motor and Induction Generator ApplicationsAsp, D. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: The electric motor in its present technological configuration has remained virtually unchanged since its original conception nearly 100 years ago. It would be logical to assume that a device, which has undergone such insignificant evolution, would have small impact with reference to industry. This paper will provide an introduction to the Wanlass technology and its application to induction motors and generators. This will be accomplished through analysis of motor and generator tests.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-84-04-137.pdf (4.504Mb)
Van Ormer, H. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2004)[more][less]
Abstract: Compressed air is often overlooked in energy studies because many people don't fully understand compressed air equipment, the air system or what it costs to produce compressed air power. For those willing to look and use some good old common sense it is
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-04-04-22.pdf (699.7Kb)
Miller, P. H.; Mann, L., Jr. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1980)[more][less]
Abstract: An energy analysis made for the Joan of Arc Food Processing Plant in St. Francisville, Louisiana indicated that a significant quantity of waste heat energy was being released to the atmosphere in the forms of low quality steam and hot flue gases. Additional analysis, measurements, and observations over a period of 12 months resulted in an evaluation of the losses as well as recommended methods for the effective recovery of the waste heat energy. The waste energy recovery results in significant savings in energy costs as well as a reduction in the consumption of scarce fuel. The research was supported by the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, College of Engineering, Louisiana State University, and the Joan of Arc Company, St. Francisville, Louisiana.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-80-04-57.pdf (1.159Mb)
Ganapathy, V. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1998)[more][less]
Abstract: Incineration is a widely used process for disposing of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes generated in various types of industries. In addition to destroying pollutants, energy may also be recovered from the waste gas streams in the form of steam. The steam thus generated may be saturated or superheated and could be used for process applications or for power generation via a steam turbine. This paper describes the major component of any incineration system, namely the waste heat boiler, and describes a few of the important types of waste heat boilers used in the industry. During incineration, flue gas streams between 1400 F to 2500 F are generated and may contain ash particulates and corrosive gases such as hydrogen chloride, sulfur and chlorine, which can affect selection of materials for high temperature components such superheaters and also the performance of low temperature equipment such as the economizer. Hence boilers for these applications have to designed with care. Guidelines are also given in this paper for choosing between fire tube and water tube boilers.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-98-04-45.pdf (2.740Mb)
Waste Heat Doesn't Have to be a Waste of Money- The American & Efird Heat Recovery Project: A First for the Textile IndustrySmith, S. W. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), June 1991)[more][less]
Abstract: In 1989 American & Efird, Inc., decided to upgrade their heat recovery system at its Dyeing & Finishing Plant in Mt. Holly, North Carolina. They chose an electric industrial process heat pump to enhance heat recovery and to lower operating costs. This application of the industrial process heat pump was the first of its kind in the American textile industry and was the result of a three year cooperative effort between American & Efird, Inc. and Duke Power Company. This innovative application of heat pump technology has allowed American & Efird to gain additional boiler capacity, lower waste water discharge temperatures and achieve significant energy savings. Duke Power will gain an additional 572,000 KWH in annual sales, of which approximately 70 percent will occur during off-peak hours, and American & Efird will enjoy lower overall energy costs.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-91-06-27.pdf (2.644Mb)
Verneau, A. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), 1979)[more][less]
Abstract: The use of Organic Rankine Cycle for waste heat recovery presents several characteristics which are analyzed in details. After a short comparison with steam cycles, the Organic Rankine Cycle is described : its simplicity is shown and achievable efficiencies versus heat source temperature are given. Available fluids are presented. The choice of the fluid allows a good adaptation to temperature and power for each application. The most interesting field for Organic Rankine Cycles are low mechanical powers of a few megawatts and medium temperatures, about 500 C/600 C, for flue gas. The very simple technology of turbines is shown. Three examples are presented. The first one is a test loop of 300 thermal kW built in BERTIN & Cie laboratory to experiment a supersonic turbine designed by the same company for organic vapor at 250 C. The second gives the main characteristics of recovery from exhaust gas of Diesel engines. The last deals with possible recovery from air quenching of clinker in cement plants.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-79-04-109.pdf (1.580Mb)
Jackson, H. Z. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1982)[more][less]
Abstract: Shortages of fossil fuels and subsequent increasing prices and curtailments of these fuels have combined to accelerate the development of alternate energy sources. Waste heat recovery is one time-proven method of replacing fuel resources. Waste heat recovery from refrigeration machines is a concept which has great potential for implementation in many businesses. If a parallel requirement for refrigeration and hot water exists, the installation of a system to provide hot water as a by-product of the refrigeration cycle becomes economically justifiable. This paper treats the history of the refrigeration machine, and the modern developments which have made available the system concept of waste heat recovery from refrigeration. A typical application is analyzed from an engineering and economic viewpoint, salient points of both considerations being clearly quantified.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-82-04-156.pdf (1.223Mb)
Murphy, W. T.; Woods, B. E.; Gerdes, J. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1980)[more][less]
Abstract: A case study is reviewed on a heat recovery system installed in a meat processing facility to preheat water for the plant hot water supply. The system utilizes waste superheat from the facility's 1,350-ton ammonia refrigeration system. The heat recovery system consists of a shell and tube heat exchanger (16"? x 14'0") installed in the compressor hot gas discharge line. Water is recirculated from a 23,000-gallon tempered water storage tank to the heat exchanger by a circulating pump at the rate of 100 gallons per minute. All make-up water to the plant hot water system is supplied from this tempered water storage tank, which is maintained at a constant filled level. Tests to determine the actual rate of heat recovery were conducted from October 3, 1979 to October 12, 1979, disclosing an average usage of 147,000 gallons of hot water daily. These tests illustrated a varied heat recovery of from 0.5 to 1.0 million BTU per hour. The deviations were the result of both changing refrigeration demands and compressor operating modes. An average of 16 million BTU per day was realized, resulting in reduced boiler fuel costs of $30,000 annually, based on the present $.80 per gallon #2 fuel oil price. At the total installed cost of $79,000, including test instrumentation, the project was found to be economically viable. The study has demonstrated the technical and economic feasibility of refrigeration waste heat recovery as a positive energy conservation strategy which has broad applications in industry and commerce.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-80-04-09.pdf (1.479Mb)
Thorn, W. F. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), June 1986)[more][less]
Abstract: Flue gases exiting the stack of a boiler create thermal losses normally amounting to 15 to 20 percent of the high heating value of the fuel fired. By capturing and using this lost energy using condensing heat recovery, the overall efficiency of the system can be raised to over 95 percent. This paper reviews the origins of stack heat losses, direct contact condensing heat recovery processes, the Rocket Research Company CON-X condensing recuperator equipment and systems, site specific case studies and fuels and condensate acidity. A detailed example of the determination of the magnitude of stack heat losses is presented along with a methodology for the reader to make a preliminary heat recovery evaluation.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-86-06-69.pdf (2.746Mb)
Fraley, L. D.; Ksiao, H. K.; Thunem, C. B. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1984)[more][less]
Abstract: Not too many years ago energy costs and efficiencies were virtually ignored by corporate decision makers. The prevailing attitude was 'my business is manufacturing and my capital is best spent improving and expanding my manufacturing capacity.' With energy now contributing a significant fraction of the overall product cost in many industries, there is general recognition that control of fuel and electric costs is just as important to remaining competitive as is improving manufacturing methods. This is particularly true in the cement industry. Cement manufacture consists of mining and grinding rocks, melting them to form clinkers, then grinding those clinkers to a powder. Through recovery of waste heat and inclusion of technology such as flash calciners, the industry has reduced the fuel requirement per ton of cement from about 7 million Btu per ton in old plants to less than 3 million Btu per ton in the most modern plants.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-84-04-51.pdf (5.755Mb)
McMann, F. C.; Thurman, J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1983)[more][less]
Abstract: The use of exhaust gas heat exchangers to preheat combustion air in forge and heat treat furnaces is discussed. The temperature range of the applications are 1200o -2400o F. The installations discussed involve both new and retrofit construction. Cost and performance data are presented as the various case histories are discussed. The effects of the hot air installations on equipment operations and temperature uniformity are discussed.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-83-04-84.pdf (2.469Mb)
Romero, M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), May 2009)[more][less]
Abstract: WOW operates in the energy efficiency field- one of the fastest growing energy sectors in the world today. The two key products - WOWGen® and WOWClean® provide more energy at cheaper cost and lower emissions. •WOWGen® - Power Generation from Industrial Waste Heat •WOWClean® - Multi Pollutant emission control system. Current power generation technology uses only 35% of the energy in a fossil fuel and converts it to useful output. The remaining 65% is discharged into the environment as waste heat at temperatures ranging from 300°F to 1,200°F. This waste heat can be captured using the WOWGen® technology and turned into electricity. This efficiency is up to twice the rate of competing technologies. Compelling economics and current environmental policy are stimulating industry interest. WOWGen® power plants can generate between 1 - 25 MW of electricity. Project payback is between two to five years with IRR of 15% 30%. Nearly anywhere industrial waste heat is present, the WOW products can be applied. Beneficial applications of heat recovery power generation can be found in Industry (e.g. steel, glass, cement, lime, pulp and paper, refining and petrochemicals), Power Generation (CHP, biomass, biofuel, traditional fuels, gasifiers, diesel engines) and Natural Gas (pipeline compression stations, processing plants). Sources such as stack flue gases, steam, diesel exhaust, hot oil or combinations of sources can be used to generate power. WOWGen® can also be used with stand alone power plants burning fossil fuels or using renewable energy sources such as solar and biomass.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-09-05-18.pdf (487.8Kb)
Manning, E., Jr. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 1981)[more][less]
Abstract: As energy costs continue to increase, one must be willing to accept greater complexities in heat recovery systems. The days of being satisfied with only simple hot product to cold feed exchange, restricted to the plot boundaries of each unit, are a thing of the past. This paper presents results of a refinery-wide survey to identify potential high temperature heat sources that are not being recovered and low temperature systems that consume fuel. The best candidates in each category were connected by a circulating heat medium loop where waste heat is recovered for useful purposes. The heat medium chosen is turbine fuel. It is pumped around the refinery to pick up heat at the crude distilling unit, the hydrocracker, the catalytic cracker, and the coker; the heat is used to reboil a butylenes splitter column and to preheat boiler feed Water. The heat that is recovered is equivalent to some 660 B/D of fuel: at an illustrative fuel value of say $30 per barrel, the value of the recovered heat is $20,000 per day. An energy conservation project at Shell's Norco (Louisiana) Manufacturing Complex involves several processing units and recovers heat that was previously lost to air or cooling water. The recovered heat is used to reboil a butylenes splitter column and to preheat boiler feed water. Essentially, the system consists of a circulating heat medium that transfers waste heat to heat consumers. The heat medium picks up heat from multiple donors and transfers it to multiple consumers.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-81-04-06.pdf (998.2Kb)
O'Brien, T. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu), 2008)[more][less]
Abstract: Submerged Arc Furnaces are used to produce high temperature alloys. These furnaces typically run at 3000°F using high voltage electricity along with metallurgical carbon to reduce metal oxides to pure elemental form. The process as currently designed consumes power and fuel that yields an energy efficiency of approximately 40% (Total Btu’s required to reduce to elemental form/ Btu Input). The vast majority of heat is lost to the atmosphere or cooling water system. The furnaces can be modified to recover this heat and convert it to power. The system will then reduce the amount of purchased power by approximately 25% without any additional use of fuel. The cost of this power is virtually unchanged over the life of the project because of the use of capital to displace fuel consumed from the purchased power source.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-08-05-50.pdf (327.1Kb)
Eggebrecht, J. A.; Heffington, W. M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1996)[more][less]
Abstract: The Texas A&M University Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) was one of the four Energy Analysis & Diagnostic Centers (EADC) that began providing waste management, in addition to energy and demand conservation, assessments in January, 1994. Over 30 of the combined energy and waste assessments have been performed and it is possible to identify some common waste assessment projects. However, this paper focuses on some out of the ordinary recommendations and illustrates that waste management implies more than merely using less hazardous chemicals. These uncommon recommendations may appear to be specific to particular industries, but the waste reduction principle behind them is not. The underlying principle concentrates upon reducing waste management volumes or costs, or managing the production process so that product is not discarded due to contamination or for other reasons, or capturing the waste for use as a byproduct. Specific manufacturing practices, processes, or products are given as illustration, but the waste reduction scenarios are readily adaptable to other processes by employing these underlying principles in the context of different manufacturing activities.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-96-04-03.pdf (3.802Mb)
Smith, C. S.; Heffington, W. M. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu), April 1995)[more][less]
Abstract: The Industrial Assessment Center at Texas A&M University has performed several waste and energy minimization surveys in small- and medium- sized industrial manufacturing plants in Texas. During these surveys, Industrial Assessment Center personnel have become familiar with several plant waste management practices. This paper discusses waste management practices in industrial plants in Texas with particular attention to the requirements of the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, including reporting. Some reporting is required of all industrial plants, but the reporting requirements and procedures differ in accordance with the type and amount of waste generated. Future changes in federal and state laws regarding waste management are also discussed. New environmental laws and modifications to current waste management and disposal laws and reporting systems are changing many facets of the requirements for industrial waste generators.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-95-04-24.pdf (4.139Mb)
Durham, R. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1989)[more][less]
Abstract: Waste minimization is an environmental good news story that Dow enjoys going out and talking about. The purpose of this paper is to introduce you to Dow's Waste Reduction Program. First, some background information and some definitions pertaining to waste reduction will be discussed. After that, some waste reduction data will be covered as well as some specific examples, and what we do to recognize those individuals who have developed some creative ways to reduce waste. The paper will close with where Dow would like to be in the future.
Files in this item: 2ESL-IE-89-09-47.pdf (2.811Mb)(more files)
Good, R. L.; Hunt, K. E. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), September 1989)[more][less]
Abstract: Several changes in the last few years have forced a re-examination of waste generation within the petrochemical industry. In today's political/regulatory arena, industrial waste, both hazardous and non-hazardous, has become an extreme potential liability in handling, storing, and disposal. Traditional methods, such as fueling boilers and furnaces, are coming under increasing regulatory scrutiny and control. Even when the heat value of a waste material can be recovered, the energy used to manufacture that material is lost. The answers are becoming apparent: to (1) preferably not produce waste at all, or (2) recover as a usable product. This results in not only a reduction in cost and liability but a substantial reduction in energy use per unit of product sold. The following is a discussion of how a large Gulf Coast petrochemical facility is tackling waste minimization and a look at some of the energy savings that have been attained.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-89-09-48.pdf (6.709Mb)
The Waste Prevention War-- Small Arms Fire Now, but the Heavy Artillery is Coming (and the Search is on for Magic Bullets)Steinmeyer, D. (Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.eslwin.tamu.edu), June 1990)[more][less]
Abstract: 'Waste Prevention' is unambiguous, as contrasted with 'waste minimization' or 'waste elimination'. It means preventing the production of waste. It isn't easy to do. Typically it requires major modification to the process: * to minimize byproduct formation * to recover product and byproducts * to recycle wastes to destruction * to recover undesirables in a form in which they can be sold or burned * to incorporate a waste destruction step into the process. Small Arms Fire --is how our past success stories can be categorized, accurate but limited. Heavy Artillery --refers to R&D programs to revise our processes to prevent waste. Magic Bullets --refers to generic new technologies.
Files in this item: 1ESL-IE-90-06-07.pdf (4.373Mb)